The first thing that any Hub author needs to learn (and accept) is that HubScores go up AND down.
Read that first sentence again, or even a few times if you wish. The HubPages website re-calculates statistics throughout the day and many new authors immediately freak out and go running to the forum to post a message with a headline screaming "help, my HubScore is going down...!"
Just take a few deep breaths and let yourself know that you can stop panicking. There's nothing that's happening to you that doesn't happen to the rest of us. HubScores are based on a variety of factors and, as these fluctuate, so does the score. Over time, you might even notice that your Hub has peak and off-peak times. I've got Hubs that regularly move up and down across a ten or fifteen point range during the course of a single day. And, as a result of these changes, your Author Score will also go up and down. It's all perfectly normal and is precisely how the system here was designed to work. You can't make a HubScore stick at any certain level or score.
The HubPages FAQ can tell you how HubScore is computed. No, it won't give you an exact formula. That would make it too easy for spammers and bad players to game the system. However if you're looking to build a strong Hub or want to improve the score of one you've published already, here are some suggestions that can help you based on my own experience here at HubPages.
There is one way to tell that you're not performing very well with HubPages: the no-follow threshold. If a HubScore or HubAuthor Score is too low, HubPages will apply no-follow tags to any links in your Hubs, forum posts or comments
The HubScore threshold is 40 for individual Hubs. The HubAuthor score threshold is 85.
If you have Hubs that score below 40 or if your personal score is 85 or lower, what you are creating on HubPages is not considered to be quality content and you should review it based on the suggestions made in this Hub.
Straight From The HubPages' Mouth!
A lot of new and potential Hub author find themselves contemplating just what it is that makes a great Hub
When a post in the forums asked about lenses being flagged as spam, it was answered with the following:
Are all of your Hubs being flagged as spam? If not, are there differences between those that are being flagged, and those that are not
- # of links to a single domain
- length & genuine utility of content
- originality of content
To make a great Hub, write your own original content, make it genuinely useful/helpful/informative and include a variety of resources (video, links, pics, feeds) from a variety of web sites.
Paul Deeds, the General Manager and Co-Founder of HubPages, posted some really interesting info about HubScores and traffic in January 2010 when the algorithms got updated:
96-100 - 99.9 percentile (3000 page views a month)
91-95 - 99.3 percentile (2200 page views a month)
86-90 - 97.7 percentile (1300 page views a month)
81-85 - 94th percentile (900 page views a month)
76-80 - 88th percentile (90 page views a month)
71-75 - 78th percentile (30 page views a month)
(Since the HUGE losses traffic due to Google's Panda and Penguin in 2012, undoubtedly how these scores are calculated have changed, but as you might guess, there's been no word from HubPages to offer any clarification or clue.)
The Hub Rules - Plain and Simple
For a Better Performing Hub...
Have a good title and summary.
- Really good titles are three to five words, and are a statement, NOT a question. (That only really works on the TV show Jeopardy) Jokes or clever phrases might seem fun, but something that really says what the Hub is about works much better. Make sure you've written your own summary text too. You want a few short and to-the-point sentences that say what the Hub is about and includes some good keyword phrases.
Have effective and relevant Hub tags.
- The tags you use on a Hub should relate directly to the Hub topic and content. Most people do not search by single words anymore, so make sure to use "keyword phrases." These two and three word combinations work best when also happen to be found in your actual Hub content. Do not try include every phrase in the world that you can think of as this too can hurt your Hub.
Have a good variety of content.
- Do you have a mix of content capsules as part of your Hub content? Having a few pictures, a video that goes with what you wrote about and links to other resources help provide a really good mix of info for your Hub visitors. There are nine different types of content capsules. Having five or six of them is a good way to ensure you have diversified your content sufficiently.
Review your Hub occasionally.
- This not only refers to checking your content periodically to make sure it's still relevant and updated, but also your links. Whereas HubPages has a built-in checker that will find broken links, I've found that sometimes websites rearrange or reorganize their content and what HubPages reads as a valid link is now a redirect on the other end, taking you to a front page of the linked website and not the specific page you originally selected. This can be especially true of large sites with big archives. It also is a good idea to revisit the products you are recommending for purchase and offer something new in those areas as well.
Hot vs Best
Hot hub rankings use many of the same factor as HubScore, but are skewed toward newer hubs, hubs that have growing traffic, and hubs that have comment activity. A high traffic hub that has steady traffic for many months will probably have a high HubScore, but it may not be very high on the "hot" list.
— Paul Deeds
All Hubs Need...
- A just-published Hub is going to have a low score. They tend to start out somewhere in the 40s. During the first few days, this slowly climbs until the Hub finally develops it's natural HubScore range. It takes a bit for the HubPages system to study and learn the new Hub, and it's probably not even been recognized by the major search engines yet. I let new Hubs grow on their own for anywhere from two weeks to a month before I consider what their score is and if I want to try to boost it. This also allows for a useful amount of statistics to gather so that I have good information and feedback. If your Hub starts out in the low 20s range, there's a good chance that too much of the content is duplicated elsewhere on the web, and most likely, that HubScore isn't going to go up very much until you add lots of original writing.
- The biggest factor many people overlook when it comes to Hub performance is traffic. If your Hub is getting a few visits per day, it will easily be outranked by Hubs on the same topic that are getting hundreds or thousands of visits. If people who are interested in your topic aren't finding your Hub, you're not getting meaningful traffic. Getting fellow Hub authors to visit is NOT meaningful traffic. You really want to attract people from outside of HubPages. If you write about things you truly enjoy and like, you probably have friends who share your interests or other websites where you talk about the same thing. Tell those folks. And if you are building backlinks, make sure they come from a quality site or they won't actually help your Hub.
If Your Hub Is Lagging, Watch out For...
Linking multiple times to the same resources.
- HubPages doesn't want you to just promote some other website. That's their #1 definition of spam. If that's all you're trying to do, there are plenty of other places that will let you build landing pages (that's what those sorts of pages are called). Once you have more than one or two links to the same web domain on a Hub, you start to negatively impact your score. Also note that HubPages defines spam as being when all links on a Hub point to the same site. That means you might get a Hub flagged as spam if it's only got two links and they are pointing to the same site. Linking to the same domains repeatedly across all your Hubs will also have a negative impace on your HubScores.
Linking to poor resources.
- You're going to get the most benefit out of your links by making them go to other great resources on your topic. Linking to a site that search engines consider a "bad neighborhood" can also lower your score. Using cloaking in your links turns them into "wildcards" that add to the domains you are showing and tends to trigger Hubs into being considered "overly-promotional.
- HubPages runs a filter to see if your text appears somewhere else on the web. If it does, that too will cause you to have a lower score or even get your Hub unpublished. Some peole complain they can't help but use quotes or other prevalent content to make their hubs, but it's just a matter of keeping the quoted stuff down to a very small percentage of your page. And if you stole the copy from someone else (plagiarizing), that person can contact HubPages and have your Hubs outright deleted and your account might even be banned
Being a soapbox and not an informed opinion.
- Hubs are not blogs. (Repeat that to yourself a few times) If all you've done is post a personal rant, it's not going to be as attractive to a reader as an informed argument that includes links to facts and other information, or a helpful guide to something. You'll get more comments and better reader interaction from something that resembles an intelligent discussion more than a one-side monologue. Hubs can get flagged as "substandard" if they are just a chunk of opinion and not a well-informed and researched article that's of genuine interest and use to everyone else.
How to Create a Link
Using Hub Metrics for a Quick Check-up
HubPages provides some in-house stats and feedback about Hubs. These are just some quick estimates and possibilities but they offer a quick way to do a check-up on the state of your Hubs.
These stats are found via a link that only the author can see at the top of the Hub, right after the edit and delete buttons. Five tabs open when you click to view the stats. Most of it is basic traffic, showing daily, weekly, monthly and total page views for the Hub. These shows the main domains that are referring traffic to your Hub.
The last tab reads "Hub Metrics" and displays four values. The first is "word count" and it refers to how many words are in the Text capsules and Photo capsule captions. Essentially, it's the content that's been originally created by the author. It's suggested that you have 400-500 words to start, but if you really want a better performing Hub, it's best to get that count up to the 800-1,000 word range.
The second value shown is "revenue potential." This is showing you the potential for Hub earnings using a graphic of dollar signs ranging from one to five signs. The more dollar signs you see here, the better your content is hitting keywords that carry higher-earning ad potential. If you think you'd like your Hub to show more dollar signs than it shows, you'll want to rethink what you are talking about or what words you are using.
The third value is "incoming links" and shows between one and five asterisks. Less asterisks means your Hub has very few other places on the web that are linking back to it. Lots of asterisks means your Hub is well-linked. It can take several weeks for new links to have an effect on a Hub so if a Hub is new, you'll have to be patient. If a Hub is older and only has one or two asterisks, you'll want to get out there and do some promotion for your Hub.
The fourth metric is "view duration." This gives you an idea of how long a visitor stays on your Hub. Only one asterisk and it means your visitors are quickly clicking away from your Hub to somewhere else. Five asterisks mean they are hanging around to actually read, and hopefully interact with, your content. If you don't have many asterisks, it means you're not giving your visitors the type of information they are expecting or looking for when they come to the page. If that's the case, you probably want to rethink and rewrite your content, or it means you need to get a different audience for the content that you do have.
Has any of this advice helped you? If so, let me know!
Chelsey from Ottawa, Ontario on December 09, 2014:
Raye (author) from Seattle, WA on December 09, 2014:
Good luck, Chelsea!
Chelsey from Ottawa, Ontario on December 08, 2014:
Thanks for all the useful info. Especially helps people like me who are still learning how things work!
Raye (author) from Seattle, WA on October 11, 2014:
You look like you are making generalized shopping pages for Hubs. Expect to see those get slammed by the latest Panda update.a
Arco Hess from Kansas City, Kansas on October 11, 2014:
The traffic thing seems to be pretty accurate. When I published one of my hubs, it was a 89. It hasn't had much traffic just after one week and it has gone down to a 71.
Raye (author) from Seattle, WA on October 09, 2014:
Aesta, glad it helped!
Mary Norton from Ontario, Canada on October 09, 2014:
Coming across your hub is clearly a bonus to my day. I had been liberated from the puzzlement I had for days. I cannot proceed editing my hubs armed with this bit of know how and the promise of further enlightenment from the links you've included.
Pinky de Garcia on September 30, 2014:
Hi! I'm new here on Hubpages and I find this article useful. Thanks for the helpful information.
Susie Lehto from Minnesota on September 03, 2014:
Very good of you to write all this information out. Helpful!
Raye (author) from Seattle, WA on August 31, 2014:
aka-rms, HubScores are oblique at best. If you can sort of ignore them for a while, your quality content will take care of everything eventually.
Robin S from USA on August 31, 2014:
Thanks, this makes me feel a little better about the scores I've received, so far.
Raye (author) from Seattle, WA on August 23, 2014:
Brian, I'm glad you are finding helpful info.
Brian Stephens from France on August 23, 2014:
You have certainly learned how to operate on HubPages and I take a lot of notice of what you say as I can see you are offering very good advice. Thanks for another very informative hub.
Raye (author) from Seattle, WA on August 22, 2014:
Brenda, it does this whenever it's a low-traffic time of year and I'm active on the site. I don't take scores too seriously, I've just learned how to play the game with them.
Treasures By Brenda from Canada on August 22, 2014:
Thanks for another helpful Hub, Relache. I'm liking your author hubscore!
Raye (author) from Seattle, WA on August 17, 2014:
Jan, it's been hard to keep up with the changes of the last few years, but this hub has surely been worth updating.
Janis Leslie Evans from Washington, DC on August 17, 2014:
Great markers for success, relache. Very informative and timely with all the changes going on with algorithms and hubscore. Thanks for the tutorial, voted up and useful.
Raye (author) from Seattle, WA on July 07, 2014:
Getting your first dozen Hubs up and running is something that you really need to do before you start to think about HubScores and trying to boost them. Also make sure you stop by the Learning Center, as that's where you will find all the instructions for how everything works.
Sunardi from Indonesia on July 07, 2014:
Very useful tutorial. I am on struggle to publish my third hub. It's been three days.
Raye (author) from Seattle, WA on July 07, 2014:
My best advice is to really study the HubPages rules. So many authors here never actually read them, and knowing that info right out of my head has helped me so much!
Janani Shankar from Tiruchirappalli, India on July 07, 2014:
Yeah it helped me so much, I wanna write hubs like you.
Raye (author) from Seattle, WA on July 07, 2014:
Janai, wow you are a brand-new person to the site. I hope this helps you!
Janani Shankar from Tiruchirappalli, India on July 06, 2014:
This is really useful to me, Thank you so much .
Raye (author) from Seattle, WA on June 13, 2014:
Lisa, my theory is to try and help new members learn how to help themselves, as that makes them stronger and more independent writers over the long-term. I hope it helps you!
Lisa from Virginia on June 13, 2014:
Thanks so much. I learned a lot since I am new here. Good to know there are so many people on here willing to help us newbies.
William from America on December 28, 2013:
Thank you so much for this insight. You've really helped my hubs.
biblicaliving from U.S.A. on November 14, 2013:
This Hub is spot on. I have found that traffic seems to be king when it comes to a hub score. I have one hub that has 12,000+ views in the last 2 years and it has remained in the mid-80's despite my neglect. I think that I am going to compose a hub about hubbing, although my experience is much more limited than others. Good Hub!
Devika Primić from Dubrovnik, Croatia on August 19, 2013:
Great hub, informative, useful, and most helpful to us hubbers
Tony Sky from London UK on June 17, 2013:
Thanks for this more than clear and informative hub. I have been here for a while (about 7 years) and its never too late to learn.
Serenity Queen from Rochester, NY on May 18, 2013:
Thank you for this article! I've been a little stressed about mine and I just started yesterday, but I wanted to know ways to increase my score if it didn't go up soon.
Noufel Backer from Kochi on April 15, 2013:
Thanks for sharing this article.This explains deeply about the factors affecting hub score and how one can improve their hubscore by reviewing their existing hubs.
Raye (author) from Seattle, WA on July 28, 2012:
Gamerelated, remember that one of the best teachers is your own best-performing Hubs. Look at the best and see what they do that the lower scoring ones don't do... then adjust from there.
Gamerelated from California on July 28, 2012:
Your advice is great. This is one of the most helpful Hubs that I have read so far. I am still new to writing so I have been both writing and trying to learn at the same time. I am glad I have read your Hub and I will try to take what I learned here and apply it to my Hubs that I have already written plus my Hubs that I will write in the future.
Johnkadu123 from Toronto, Canada on June 13, 2012:
Thank god for this hub. I know what needs to be done. My score started on 87 and then went down to 83. I have been in panic mode until I read this article. I think I now know what to do. One thing that worries me is the low traffic figures. Does anyone know how I can improve my traffic figures over the long term.
newseotactics from KY on June 06, 2012:
Amazing article! Very helpful!!
nilknarf_soive from Isabel Town on May 30, 2012:
I have been in hubpage, or at least my account have been for 2 years but totally inactive. I had my first post yesterday. I wanted to know about hubscore so I got this article and it is very helpful. Thanks!
Jessee R from Gurgaon, India on May 28, 2012:
RTalloni on May 27, 2012:
I've been meaning to come back to this hub so I'm glad to see it tonight. Thanks for a great resource on boosting hub scores. It has straightforward info in an easy to read format with beneficial links.
Natasha from Hawaii on May 27, 2012:
Thanks for all the great information! Voted up and useful.
Maree Michael Martin from Northwest Washington on an Island on May 27, 2012:
Very helpful, useful tools. Thank you so much!
mygameguides from The Internet... ;) on March 31, 2012:
Thanks for the great hub. I'm new here and hence a low author score.
Karla Iverson from Oregon on March 19, 2012:
Thanks for the great and very informative hub! I saw a hub score go down a point when it hadn't had traffic for a while. I tracked my hub scores for a few days by exporting them and working in Excel to compare all of them.
I was a little panicky to see the scores on some go up and some go down without enough visitors to account for the changes - I still get trickles rather than floods. I had assumed that hub scores were purely voting by hubbers who read my hubs. Naïve! As usual, it's a combination of things.
Renz Kristofer Cheng from Manila on March 18, 2012:
This is really helpful! I'm new to hubpages, and this certainly contains a lot of information! Thanks!
Injured lamb on March 08, 2012:
Thanks again Rae...this hub helps me to understand much more about how to improve my hubscore, well, clear and concise! voted this up! Cheers!
LauraGT from MA on February 26, 2012:
This is a great introduction for a new hubber (me!) I didn't even know there were hub metrics. Thanks for the clear, concise explanation.
marinandee from Kuala Lumpur on February 20, 2012:
Hi Relache, thanks for this great post. I never thought before our hub score calculate with such algorithm.
Michael S from Danville, VA on February 19, 2012:
Good stuff here. I'm in a phase now of updating everything and this helps a lot. Cheers!
CZCZCZ from Oregon on February 17, 2012:
Good read thanks for putting this together. Off to go work on a few of my under performing hubs and try and get their hub scores to increase.
Christabel Evans from England, UK on February 17, 2012:
Great hubs. You have covered all the information to write and publish better hubs. Thanks for this. It's much useful.
PennySeeds on February 12, 2012:
Thanks for the tips. Trying to learn how scoring works. I thought maybe hubpages didn't like a hub I published recently and that's why my score went down but maybe I didn't wait long enough. Does your author score take into account an average of all your hubs?
Ruth R. Martin from Everywhere Online ~ Fingerlakes ~ Upstate New York on February 09, 2012:
Thank you for all the tips - I didn't know about using the 'stats' above each hub to see my Hub Metrics. Thank you for sharing that in detail, it helps me understand what I can do to make my hubs better.
MomsTreasureChest on February 04, 2012:
Thanks for the information, newbie here and still learning!
thebestyou on January 31, 2012:
awesome! Thank you
rnewco from Maine on January 26, 2012:
Great article, I am glad I took the time to read up on the information here and giving me a better understanding about the Hubscore
Swetank Raj from India on January 24, 2012:
Thanks for this useful hub! When i started there is tremendous low hub score but after reading your reviews it helped me lot. Especially the rules for hubscore.
Sondra Rochelle from USA on January 06, 2012:
Outstanding, informative and well written hub. You've cleared up a lot of questions for me. I am saving this hub and will be reading it again and again because I think it will help me to progress on this site. Thank you very much...I can see why you are so successful!
aboutchina from China on January 05, 2012:
daleamy from Spring Hill, TN on December 26, 2011:
This article was extremely helpful to me! Thank you for your thorough information.
Brittainia from US on December 21, 2011:
Thanks, this really cleared up some confusing points.
badger1b from Colorado on December 16, 2011:
Thank you so much. I just signed up with HubPages yesterday so this Hub is a bit too much for me yet, but I promise I will be back to this Hub again and again as I gain experience.
katinaferguson on December 09, 2011:
Hmmm. I do wonder about the traffic/score correlation though. One of my hubs has a current score of 86 and only has 120 views, total. Another one has a 144 total views and it ranks 65. Another one, a draft with no views except 1 (me) is already rated at 64 and it has not been published. I would venture to say that "content is King." The titles and subject matter weigh heavily in this cryptic algorithm...at least, that's my observation.
Well written hub though, voted up and useful :) Thanks for taking the time to write this. There is a lot to take away.
senderwollas from Earth :) on December 05, 2011:
Thank you soooo much for this magnificent hub! Extra informative article, will definitely keep it in mind.
dress4less on December 04, 2011:
Excellent Hub really helpful it will really help me to improve my own Hub score.
Brian Weekes from Queensland, Australia on November 29, 2011:
An excellent article. Very insightful.
cadebe on November 29, 2011:
This is a very informative hub. Thanks for sharing.
Rebecca Mealey from Northeastern Georgia, USA on November 29, 2011:
SO helpful!!! I'm still pretty new and I find this to be of great value to me, especially The stats with the asterisks and $$$$ and such. You should be writing for the HubPages Learning Center.Thanks!
Stephanie Bradberry from New Jersey on November 29, 2011:
There's a lot of useful advice here for new hubbers. I am glad you put it all in one place for easy reference.
Fierce Manson from Atlanta on November 29, 2011:
Oh wow I cant believe I am just now coming across this very informative hub. This awesome information, and heading over to your improving hubpages earning.
Sheila Brown from Southern Oklahoma on November 29, 2011:
Excellent hub! Very informative and easy to understand. Voted up and following!
Barry Rutherford from Queensland Australia on November 29, 2011:
posted as a link on a couple of my hub sites..
Beth Pipe from Cumbria, UK on November 29, 2011:
Useful hub - thanks.
Tim Mitchell from Escondido, CA on November 29, 2011:
Awesome! Thank you Relache! Bookmarked! I was hunting for the page view / percentile ranking thingy. I read it once before now I have it for planning while I learn SEO next year, which is my main goal. Awesome and thanks again, tim
Moon Lightened from Delhi, India on November 29, 2011:
Great hub and very helpful. Thank you!
LindaSmith1 from USA on November 29, 2011:
Great hub. Learned some things about the metrics which I did not know.
Only one issue: There are hubs with scores of 60 that are not only poorly written, but contain a few sentences and then a video slapped in there, title had nothing to do with content other than one sentence, maybe, in the hub while long time hubbers with great hubs start out with scores of 49.
Marisa Hammond Olivares from Texas on November 29, 2011:
Creme de la Creme!
This is a perfect resource and a MUST for me to bookmark. With your 5 successful years on HP I am confident this info is top notch. LOTS of great links as well!
Thank you Relache. Voted up and sharing! :)
Cindy Murdoch from Texas on September 20, 2011:
This is a great hub. I had it bookmarked to read when I had a spare minute. I'm glad I did! I am going to leave it bookmarked as it has lots of good info that I can return to again and again. Thanks for this wealth of information.
Xinox Leugim from Philippines on September 02, 2011:
Hi, relache. So glad I've came to read this very informative hub of yours. I did have questions on hubscore the first time I've published my first hub and this hub noweliminates my confusion. True to what you say, the first time I published my first hub it did have a low score as you mentioned that new hubs are rated low. I am amazed when I found it today to be at 92 already. Well, that's something that am happy about. But as you said that hubscores go up and down, hope this wouldn't dive to a very low rate. Thanks so much. This hub is such great.
Matt Stark from Albany, CA on August 29, 2011:
Thanks for the awesome hub. Very clear and informative and the Hub Metrics info is great!
funmontrealgirl from Montreal on August 28, 2011:
Now that I understand the way hubscores work, I am off to find out how hubbers scores work. :) I am teetering at 70 to 80....
Mike Spain from USA on August 19, 2011:
great advice, thanks for sharing
Ravi Singh from India on August 13, 2011:
I never seen somebody explained hubscore so well.Best hub I read today.keep posting . voted up!
Shermia Trueheart from Texas, USA on August 13, 2011:
This is probably one of the most informed hubs I have ever seen! KUDOS! I was just searching for a simple answer, but you have gone above and beyond on this! I strive to be this good at writing hubs... OH BY THE WAY.... LOVE LOVE LOVE the hair in your prof pic!
Nelma from Brazil on August 02, 2011:
Very cool tips. Thanks!
evonymaster on July 23, 2011:
Nice thanks for this helpful article
.josh. on July 18, 2011:
Excellent hub! I can clearly see there are a few things I should be doing a bit differently. Thanks!
Tracy Lynn Conway from Virginia, USA on June 29, 2011:
Very useful information. I was not aware of the hub stats on the hub itself. Very well written!
Caryn J. Swift568 from USA on May 31, 2011:
that's useful article for my question, thanks, and I will go back to find more interesting things to publish here~
BlueGlobal from Scottsdale, USA on May 19, 2011:
Good to see some tips that can be useful for everyone in the HP community. Thanks for the tips!
Emma Beth from Melbourne, Australia on May 14, 2011:
Thanks for the detailed info, as a new hubber, so much to think about and so clearly explained.
Donna Suthard on May 12, 2011:
great hub! Thank you for all the help you have given hubbers! Great advice, and well written hub..
Brian Lokker from Bethesda, Maryland on April 25, 2011:
This is very helpful information, clearly written. I wasn't aware of the Hub metrics, which sounds especially useful.
LoopyGem from Canada on March 29, 2011:
Being new, this hub is AMAZING! Pretty well every question I have had is answered here in more detail than anywhere I have looked yet...Thank you!
pleohub from Cebu City on March 20, 2011:
Love the info. Very helpful. thank you for this.
speedbird from Nairobi, Kenya on March 14, 2011:
Thanks for sharing this helpful information on how hubscore is calculated. Can you also create another hub explaining how hubberscore is calculated?
Christian H. from College Station, Texas on March 04, 2011:
Awesome advice. Thank you.
DaNoblest from California on March 03, 2011:
Very informative hub. Being a relatively new hubber I have learned quite a bit so far. After reading this though I still feel like a new pup.
You have shown many great suggestions and clarity for certain subjects to really supplement reading the info provided to beginners. Thank you! Useful and voted up =]
Margaret Minnicks from Richmond, VA on February 28, 2011:
Thanks for this valuable information.
Leni Sands from UK on February 14, 2011:
Really useful hub, helpful and interesting. Bookmarked for near future reference. Thank you for writing it.
Sinea Pies from Northeastern United States on February 10, 2011:
This hub should be mandatory reading material for all new writers. A wealth of information and great advice. I am making a note to revisit this one often!
lbidd54 from The beautiful Jersey Shore on January 31, 2011:
Thanks so much for a very informative hub. You answered so many of my questions in such a clear way.