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Project Appraisal Report
Feasibility Report and Project Appraisal
1) General Information
b) Constitution and sector
d) Nature of industry and product
e) Promoters and their contribution
f) Cost of project and means of finance
2) Promoters Details
3)Market Feasibility Report
d) SWOT Analysis
e) Marketing and Selling Arrangements
4) Particulars of the Project
a) Product and Capacity
b) Plant and Machinery
c) Raw Material
5) Technical Feasibility Report
c) New Developments
d) Competing Technologies
e) SWOT Analysis of technology
f) Technical Arrangement
6) Production Process
7) Environmental Aspects
8) Schedule of Implementation
9) Financial Feasibility
a) Cost Details
b) Working Capital
c) Means of Finance
d) Profitability Estimates
i) Projected Income Statement
ii) Projected Balance Sheet
iii) Projected Cash Flow Statement
iv) Coverage Ratio’s
v) Break Even Analysis
10) Economic Consideration
a) Depreciation Schedule
b) Repayment, interest schedule of term loan and bank finance
c) Working Capital and margin money for working capital schedule
d) Tax Computation
e) Details of Plant and Machinery
f) Requirement of skilled and unskilled labor
g) Cost of Project Details
Aspects of Project Appraisal
The market appraisal is attempted to answer two important questions.
(i) What is the size of the total market for the proposed product or service?
(ii) What is the product's share of total market?
Two answer the questions market analyst complies and analysis the date relating to the following aspect.
(a) Past & present trends.
(b) Present and prospective supply position.
(c) Level of imports and exports.
(d) Structure of competition.
(e) Price and cross elasticity of demand
(f) Consumer requirements.
(g) Production constraints.
(i) Availability of the required quality and quantity of raw material.
(ii) Availability of utilities like power and water etc.
(iii) Appropriateness of the plant designs and layout.
(iv) The proposed technology vis a vis alternative technologies available.
(v) Optimality of scale of operations.
(vi) The technical specifications of plant and machinery in relation to the proposed technology.
(vii) Assembly line balancing.
(i) Cost of project
(ii) Means of financing.
(iii) Projected Revenue and cost.
(iv) Pay back period.
(vi) Rate of return.
(vii) Internal Rate of Return.
(i) Impact of the project one the distribution of income in the society.
(ii) Impact of project on the level savings and investment in the society and socially desirable objectives like self sufficiently, employment etc.
(iii) Contribution of project.
Assessing project feasibility – Market.
(i) Selecting target market.
(ii) Measuring selected market.
Measurement of target market
(v) Government Policies.
Assessing Project Feasibility – Technical
(i) Selection of technology.
(ii) Manufacturing process.
(iii) Estimation of Inventory requirement.
(a) Raw Material Survey.
(iv) Selection of equipment.
(v) Plant Layout.
(vi) Plant Capacity
(a) Installed capacity.
(b) Capacity Utilization.
(vii) Utilities – Availability.
(c) Other Utilities.
(viii) Estimation of manpower needs.
(ix) Estimation of Building needs.
(x) Selection of project location.
(a) Nature of land.
(b) Nature of raw material.
(d) Effluent disposal.
4. Assessing Project Feasibility. Financial Projections
(i) Cost of Project.
Land and site development.
(a) Availability of investment subsidy.
(b) Availability of concessional finance.
(c) Sales tax exemptions.
(d) Income tax benefit.
Building and civil works.
Plant and machinery.
(a) Basic cost of indigenous machines.
(b) Basic cost of imported machines.
(c) Duties on indigenous machinery.
(d) Duties on imported machinery.
(e) Other expenses – erection charges etc.
(iv) Miscellaneous fixed assets.
(v) Preliminary expenses (2.5% of cost of project)
(vi) Preoperative expenses.
(a) Promotional expenses.
(b) Organizational and training cost.
(c) Rent, Rates, taxes.
(d) Travelling expenses.
(e) Postage, telegrams and telephone expenses.
(f) Printing and stationery expenses.
(g) Advertisement expenses.
(h) Guarantee commission.
(i) Insurance during construction.
(j) Interest during cons. period.
(vii) Provision for contingencies.
(a) Firm Cost – 5%
(b) Non Firm cost – 10%
(viii) Technical know how fees.
(ix) Margin money for working capital.
(x) Means of finance.
(a) Equity capital
(b) Performance capital.
(c) Debenture capital.
(d) Term loan.
(e) Deferred credit.
(f) Unsecured loans and deposits.
(g) Capital subsidy and development loans.
(xi) Fixing Means of finance.
(a) Debt-equity ratio
(b) Promoters contribution.
(xii) Sales Estimation
(a) Cost of production
(b) Product mix
(c) Installed capacity
(d) Capacity utilization.
(xiii) Elements of cost of production.
(a) Raw materials
(e) Total raw material cost (a)+(b)+(c)+(d)
(ii) Total utilities (e)+(f)+(g)+(h)
(k) Factory supervision and salaries.
(m) Bonus and PF
(iii) Total Labour (i)+(j)+(k)
(o) Repairs & maintenance
(q) Rent & taxes on factory.
(r) Insurance on factory assets.
(s) Packing material.
(t) Miscellaneous factory overheads.
(u) Contingency at 5%.
(iv) Total factory overheads ( o to u)
(v) Cost of manufacturing/operating cost (i) + (ii) + (iii) + (iv)
(vi) Total Administrative expenses.
(vii) Total sales expenses.
(viii) Royalty and know how payable.
(ix) Total cost of production (v) + (vi) + (vii) + (viii).
4. Assessing Project Feasibility - Financial Appraisal.
(i) Cost & benefits are measured in terms of cash flow i.e. cash in flow and cash outflow.
(ii) Evaluating projects in terms of costs and benefits is based on marginal or incremental cash flows. The marginal or incremental cash flows. The marginal cash flow is the change in total firm cash flow from adopting that investment.
(iii) As already mentioned n (i) above cash flows are always measured in post tax terms as that represents net flow from the firm point of view.
(iv) Focus should be on long term funds.
(i) Present value.
(ii) Internal rate of return (simply rate of return).
(iii) Payback period.
(iv) Accounting rate of return.
(v) Debt service coverage ratio.
(vi) Benefit cost ratio.
The present value of a cash flow is, flow what it worth in today.
It states that an investment should be adopted only if the present value of the cash it generates in future exceeds its cost.
NPV = Present value of cash flow – Initial cost.
= CF1 (PVIF,K,I)+-------------------
Internal Rate of Return –
An internal rate of return is the rate we expect to earn on an investment of project. IRR is that rate which discounts a projects cash flow to an NPV=0.
CF CF CF
0 = ----- + ----- + ------- ------ - I
1+r (1+r)2 (1+r)n
= CF(PV1FA,r,n) – I
PAY BACK PERIOD :
The pay back period measures the length of time required to recover the initial investment on a project.
ACCOUNTING RATE OF RETURN –
The accounting rate of return (ARR) equal the average annual after tax accounting profit generated by the investment divided by the average investment.
average annual profit
ARR = ------------------------------
(1 – s)
DEBT service coverage ratio –
The capacity of the project to meet the interest payment and principal repayments on time.
1 n PA Tt + Dt + It
DSCR = --- S ------------------------
n t=1 It + Lt
PA Tt = Profit after tax in year t.
Dt = Depreciation charge in year t.
It = Interest on long term loans in year t.
n = Period over which the loan has to be repaid.
Benefit cost ratio (BCR)
BCR = ------
BCR = Benefit Cost Ratio
PV = Present value of future cash flows.
I = Initial investment
BCR > 1 NBCR > 0 Accept
BCR < 1 NBCR < 0 Reject
Break Even Point.
The point at which the entire fixed costs are covered.
BEP = -----------------------------------
Sales price - variable cost
POINTS TO BE DISCUSSED
1. Debt Equity Ratio – Chaebol Korea/BPL
2. Rate of interest/Subsidy/optional sources-Enron/BPL
3. Working capital management/Bajaj/SME main problem.
Repayment cycles 30/60/90
4. Turn around – Restructuring
i. Steel industry in India
Plastic Recycling Project Report
Project Feasibility report is key to the success of the Project.
Project Feasibility Report
Feasibility report is first step in successful project. We determine if Project can be successful. What is the profitability. What is investment. We determine how much time is required to recover money.
One Project may be successful in one environment, location, but may not be feasible in another location. We determine Project Feasibility Report based on local conditions.
Once we are ready with Feasibility Report, we define Business Model and Business Strategy. The third step is Business Plan.
Business Plan is Road map on how to implement or bring Feasibility Report into reality.
There are different types and formats for Feasibility Report.
Depending Upon its requirement or who we need to submit, we build feasibility report.
Banks usually has their own formats. So are other institutions.
Feasibility Report for Startup is usually very different and difficult, when Idea is new and business model is innovative.
We Ecommerce business, Online Business and Digital Business do not use same feasibility method and valuation methods as used by Brick and Mortal System.
Digital world is totally different world. When it comes to valuation or business plan and business model, it is completely new and innovative.
The Entrepreneur and their Consultant must be able to defend their numbers and convince the investors, this is what new economic reality it.
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Habeeb on January 02, 2018:
Sir, i need help on feasibility report/project appraisal under satellite
Zia Ahmed (author) from Kuwait on June 04, 2012:
@Navin - Thanks a Lot, if you need anything more just write to me.
J K Navin on June 03, 2012:
Dear Zia Ahmed Khan, Good morning, Hope u are fine. Thanks for the information you have provided in the MARKET FEASIBILITY REPORT, which i have submit to my company. I will do my best as per the points to include. Very informative and you have enlightened my knowledge, Thank you Sir, Allah Kareem!!!my mail id: email@example.com
Zia Ahmed (author) from Kuwait on April 11, 2012:
@Tahir Khan - Thanks a lot.
Tahira Khan on April 11, 2012:
Sam on January 08, 2012:
These are good points on writing a good feasibility report. I also found this link helpful:http://www.entrepreneurshipsecret.com/how-to-prepa...
Zia Ahmed (author) from Kuwait on December 06, 2011:
@Himmat Bhai and Others, Please write to me for DPR, I have posted many on Docstoc in free and paid categories.
Himatbhai Parmar on December 06, 2011:
Dear Sir,We are running an NGO. Pl.send us a detailed feasibility study project report for study purpose on any product/process.Thanks.
Himatbhai Parmar on December 06, 2011:
We are running an NGO.Pl.send us a feasibility report/study to manufacture plastic bottles. We also offer you any computerization of priject finance work free of cost for your free delivery to self employment programmes / NGOs all over the world.Thanks.
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Zia Ahmed (author) from Kuwait on July 21, 2011:
@susantha, this is sole purpose of my writing. People should benefit from my knowledge.
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dorenthapa on July 08, 2011:
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Bamidele Lukman Olalekan on February 17, 2011:
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Prashanth on September 09, 2010:
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projfinances on March 29, 2010:
Project feasibility...just thinking about it makes my head aches. Good I come across to this article. Great hub...very helpful! Thanks Zla Ahmed Khan...
krismontez3 on March 28, 2010:
Great post here...Very informative hub. Project feasibility report is a tough task, thanks for the tips and infos.
Zia Ahmed (author) from Kuwait on February 09, 2010:
Thanks for comment
ateenyi from Chicago on February 09, 2010:
The hub is explicitly dedicated to project feasibility report. The hub is focused towards decreasing the ratio or rich and poor. The hub contains excellent information regarding budding entrepreneurs. I await your future hub with great curiosity.
Keep on Hubbing
syed athar ali on January 13, 2010:
Very good information for budding entrepreuners,
THANKS and best regards,
hafeezrm from Pakistan on January 13, 2010:
Good hub giving outlines for project feasibility report.
For mega project, social appraisal is the main document.
Unfortunately, social appraisal is not as objective as financial appraisal. Therefore, there are certain guidelines to gauge impact of project in reduction of rich:poor gap: Are the sponsors new, is the location an underdevelopment area, number of people employed, number of people benefitted indrectly? Is raw material local, Is machinery locally manufactured. Is product new or traditional.
A yes to all such questions reflects favorably on poverty reduction.