Nyamweya is a Kenyan scholar who has done many years of research on a diversity of topics
Enterprises in the global marketplace increasingly maintain their online presence for various reasons, but the main focus is to continue attracting and also retaining the consumers. Other reasons that drive organisations to create an online presence include marketing reasons to enhance the sales of their products and as a mode of enhancing customer relationship management. This research explored the impact of perceived website interactivity on hotel booking intention using NUO Hotel Beijing as the case example. The findings of the research show that the four constructs of two-way communication, responsiveness, perceived social presence and perceived ease of use have a significant impact on online booking intentions. These four constructs positively impact on the satisfaction of the consumer which can consequently cultivate loyalty that can promote future repurchase intentions. However, the findings show that failure to effectively implement the four constructs can negatively affect booking intentions. This research found that NUO Hotel Beijing faces a number of challenges related to the four constructs. Based on that, the research provides a number of ways through which the hotel can improve; the timeliness of shopping online, facilitation of convenience experienced during shopping, improving the trustworthiness and improving better information access and convenience in using the sites to book for services or to purchase products.
Key Words: Responsiveness, perceived ease of use, perceived social presence, two-way communication, hotel booking intention
Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1 Research Background
Enterprises in the global marketplace are increasingly maintain their online presence for various reasons, but the main focus is to continue attracting and also retaining the consumers (Yoo et al., 2010). Other reasons that drive organisations to create an online presence include marketing reasons to enhance the sales of their products and as a mode of enhancing customer relationship management (Yoo et al., 2010). As a result, Kuo and Feng (2013) note that the growth being witnessed in the internet usage can be attributed to the increased utilisation of smartphones, computers and tablets. Accordingly, companies are continually targeting to tap into this growing market to increase their presence. For instance, towards the end of 2016, the number of people using mobile for internet access surpassed the 700 million in China indicating the explosive growth of using mobile devices to continually access the internet for entertainment, education or shopping purposes. This data represents 95% of the overall internet users in China (eMarketer, 2017).
Nonetheless, as enterprises get more sophisticated in the manner in which they utilize internet to enhance their customer relationship, constructs such as the perceived difference of the online platforms are reduced. Ha and Stoel (2012) explain that the use of different online platforms can endanger an organisation’s operations as the distinctiveness of the website has been evidenced to be essential for its effectiveness. The differentiation of the websites has always proven to be difficult and challenging as rivals can often match the change easily and in real time, making it more difficult to sustain competition (Abdullah et al., 2016).
One of the developments that can be utilised to gain a competitive advantage is through development and strengthening of the websites interactivity. In achieving their interactivity objectives, firms can adopt several strategies to enhance their website interactivity in a bid to enhance customer relationship (Abdullah et al., 2017). According to Abdullah et al. (2017), firms can adopt an interaction-oriented approach which include adopting the four constructs of interaction capacity response, consumer value management and consumer empowerment. The focus of this research will be to examine how other factors of two-way communication, responsiveness, perceived social presence and ease of use will influence website interactivity and how it impacts their booking intention on such sites.
Firstly, two-way communication includes the extent and the manner in which the messages are all interconnected and their relations in addition to the user’s ability to received feedback from the site (Ha and Stoel, 2012). Secondly, in terms of responsiveness, this will refer to the speed to which a particular site gives responses to the request made by the users (Adbullah et al., 2016). This feature of the site is usually an external-based construct since it is a design or architectural functionality of the site. On the other end, perceived ease of use which can be viewed as an extension of the responsiveness of the site, is the extent to which the users feel that the site is not difficult to use in terms of the effort applied (Ye et al., 2017). Generally, perceived ease of use has been posited to have a positive influence on usefulness and the interactivity of websites for users. Lastly, social presence is defined as the extent to which a medium allows users to experience others being present psychologically. Social presence includes the ability to transmit both facial and non-verbal cues (Najjar, 2011). In line with the mentioned four dimensions of website interactivity, this research will examine how they influence online booking intention within NUO Hotel Beijing, which forms the case for this research.
The hotel's background can be traced back to 1915 when the Grand Hotel de Pekin was established and later renamed Beijing Hotel in 1954. It has managed to keep up with the current developments through restructuring of their operations. In 2016, the hotel was renamed Hotel Beijing Nuo (Nuo Hotel, 2017). Developed and restructured in collaboration with Kempinski Hotels. The hotel aims to provide novel attitudes and lifestyles of the modern China while also honouring and preserving the cultural heritage of the country in addition to supporting culture and contemporary art (Nuo Hotel, 017). In achieving its objective, the company has managed to integrate ICT into their operations to enhance the service delivery. The choice of this enterprise is to examine how the organisation has managed to establish their online presence with such new strategies
1.2 Research Reasons
Previously, past research studies have been carried out to evaluate aspects of website interactivity and how it influences its utilisation by users in addition to the overall influence on online shopping and brand perception. For example, Broekhuizen and Hoffman (2012) investigated the relationship between interactivity perception and preference of online newspapers. Nevertheless, while literature exist on the general examination of the website interactivity especially in relation to its utilisation within sectors such as the banking, fashion and retail sectors in other global markets, few have been carried out focusing on the tourism and the hospitality industry in the Chinese market. Therefore, this research will attempt to examine how website interactivity will influence online booking in the Chinese hotel sector, with Nuo Beijing Hotel being the case study.
Practically, the research results and findings from the research will be of significance to the hotel sector in China as it will provide information to enterprises on how to improve online bookings and visitations besides also ensuring that existing customers are retained by enhancing the efficiency in service provision. Additionally, since the findings of the research further contribute to the Technology Acceptance Model, the information provided will also be of relevance to future researchers keen to further delve deeper into this topic of research.
1.3 Research objectives
The aim of the research is to explore the impact of perceived website interactivity on hotel booking intention: the case of NUO Hotel Beijing. Accordingly, the specific research objectives will be as follows;
- To explore the impact of two-way communication on hotel booking intention in NUO Hotel Beijing
- To evaluate the impact of responsiveness on hotel booking intention in NUO Hotel Beijing
- To determine the impact of perceived social presence on hotel booking intention in NUO Hotel Beijing
- To analyse the impact of perceived ease of use on hotel booking intention in NUO Hotel Beijing
Chapter 2: Literature Review
This chapter seeks to examine the contributions of different scholars on the subject of website interactivity and how it influences online booking intentions by the consumers. Specifically, this chapter two will be organised as follows. First, the influence of two-way communication on hotel booking intentions will be examined. Secondly, the definition and the influence of responsiveness on the customers booking intention will also be outlined. Thirdly and fourth, the impact of perceived influence and perceived ease of use on online booking intentions will also be discussed.
2.2 Two-way communication and hotel booking intentions
2.2.1 Definition two-way communication
Two-way communication can be addressed using different terminologies such as reciprocal communication, direction of communication and perceived personalization. Hsu et al. (2012), reiterate that while this construct can be referred in different names, the basic concept of the dimension is similar. As espoused by Chiu and yang (2016), two-way communication revolves around the degree to which a site facilitates bilateral contact amongst the users who are either the seller and the buyer.
2.2.2 The influence two-way communication and hotel booking intentions
As espoused by Yoo et al. (2010), the conventional human interaction which has been common in the brick- and mortar organisations are continually and speedily being replaced by virtual-to human interaction platforms present online. In accordance with this development, Broekhuizen and Hoffman (2012) note that the interactivity of the websites allows the experience online to be replicated as that in real life.
Two-way communication on a site can be facilitated in two ways. Firstly, this can be achieved through communication with organisation experts through online live chats, which is likely to increase the user's satisfaction and will in turn increase recurrent future visit to find information, make purchases or bookings. Further, Wang et al. (2013) explain that the provision of online chats even amongst the consumers has also played a critical role in influencing the usage and visitation of websites. In agreement, Fang et al. (2016) opine that the present communication with other customers has been perceived to also increase more usage of a website as they are viewed as trustworthy in providing accurate information through reviews and testimonials on the products or service provided by the organisation.
Reciprocal communication influences the online shopping through a number of ways. For instance, Huang et al. (2013) opine that communication facilitates the development of trust on the brands and its products due to the information flow which creates openness between the involved parties. Additionally, Huang et al. (2013) reported that it enhances the convenience in accessing additional information and consequently improves the customers’ satisfaction towards the sites as portrayed by future visitations to purchase or making bookings. In agreement, Nguyen et al. (2016) noted that a bidirectional communication pathway will allow and enhance better information provision to the customers in forms of personal recommendations and provision from the expert advice.
2.3 Responsiveness and hotel booking intentions
2.3.1 Definition responsiveness
According to Aziz et al. (2010), responsiveness refers to an enterprises willingness to respond quickly to the client’s complaints inquiries or feedback. Differently, Hsu et al. (2012) defined responsiveness as when a receiver takes up the role of a sender and in some way replies to the source of the original message. On the other hand, Alassiri et al. (2014) define responsiveness as the probability to which a partner responds with respect to the proportions of the important sources and responses that match the demand for the elaboration that the speaker intended to elicit. From the different definition, four dimensions of responsiveness can be identified during an interaction and they include, the attention to the other partner in the communication line, comprehension accuracy on someone’s communication, the motivation to be responsive enough and possessing adequate response selections. Further, other dimensions with respect the aspect of an online presence include the probability of responding, the speed of response, elaboration of the response and relevance of the response.
2.3.2 The influence of responsiveness on hotel booking intentions
Various research studies have in the past pointed out the importance of responsiveness to the continuation of an interaction on an online platform. Broekhuizen and Hoffman (2012) explain that responsiveness is one of an enterprise relational maintenance approach towards its clients. In a similar agreement, Hsu et al. (2012) suggested that as an independent construct, responsiveness has some consequences on online shopping or site visitation as viewed in terms of both the process and the result of the interaction. First, as a process, responsiveness will affect the maintenance of the interaction with the focus leaning towards the efficiency of the communication, accuracy and the outcome of the communication and therefore influences the degree to which the objectives are attained. Ladhari et al. (2015) explain that effectiveness of responsiveness, influences the convenience to the consumers shopping activities and directly correlates to the satisfaction and willingness to return back to the website for similar endeavours. Kaptein and Parvinen (2015) stress that when responding to the client’s complaints, inquiries or feedback, experts should always be in a position to impose good personal interaction such as being courteous and provide assurance that such inquiries will be addressed as soon as they can. Other elements that can positively influence the consumers’ visitation to a website for online booking in the case of the hospitality industry will also include empathy and assurance.
Secondly, Alassiri et al. (2014) state that receiving a response to an inquiry will enhance the likelihood that the customer will post again and therefore responsiveness prompts the continued interaction and commitment towards the website. Therefore, in terms of the internet present on a website, responsiveness, as perceived by the users of the site, will revolve around the speed or time of response. Clients will measure the responsiveness of a system from the direct communication with regard to their inquiry, complaint or feedback through direct chats, calls or through email response. It is therefore related to how fast the enterprise or the experts operating the website will respond to the client's questions or request. Aluri et al. (2015) explain that a fast response will, therefore, elicit and promote a greater perception of the interactivity on the website and continued future utilisation for online bookings of repurchase through such sites. Barreda et al. (2016) noted that perceived responsiveness is closely related to the information timeliness. Quick response to the clients will be regarded as timely information to the clients. As espoused by Hamid et al. (2016), timely communication will also foster the concept of trust from the consumer towards the site and the brand.
An effective website responsiveness with respect to the timeliness of the responses given and the relevance of the information to the customer's inquiries will have a positive influenced on the service quality which will motivate the consumers to continue using the sites for repurchase or booking for services. Kucukusta and Law, (2015) also note that effective website responsiveness will also positively influence on the consumer satisfaction towards not only the site but also the brand and this will create a strong customer relationship which will foster loyalty that can push future interaction between the customer and the brand. Husein (2017) notes that while it is ideally expected that the website provides effective and fast responsiveness to the customer's inquiries, in reality, it is usually not expected for the consumers to received prompt services from the expected due to the high number of complaints that can be lodged at a particular time.
2.4 The impact of perceived social presence on hotel booking intentions
2.4.1 Definition perceived social presence
According to Najjar (2011), social presence refers to the degree to which a medium allows clients to experience other people as being psychologically available or present. Past research (Kuo et al., 2013, Chiu and Yang, 2016 and Abdullah et al. 2016) have characterised the social presence element of a medium as its capability to transmit information about posture, non-verbal cues, and expressions. Other elements of social presence can include the close relationship it has with the richness of information it provides the users and visitors to the media in addition to the psychological connection it provides to the users (Adbullah, 2016). In the context of website interactivity, the warmth that is provided through social presence is concerned with aspects such as human contact, sensitivity, and sociability (Ye et al. 2017).
With online media such as websites, features of the computer interface usually help impact the perception of the existence of a social presence. Ye et al. (2017) espouse that features such as gender stereotyping, politeness and personality responses are similar whether while interacting with a human being or through a computer interface.
2.4.2 Impact of perceived social presence on hotel booking intentions
Compared to the traditional offline shopping experience, the e-commerce shopping is viewed to lack the human touch and sociability since there is limited interaction amongst human via multiple sensory channels. For e-shopping through websites, the interaction experienced is less personal as it can possess a high sense of anonymity and automation as compared to the face-to-face commerce shopping (Najjar, 2011). Nevertheless, Kuo et al. (2013) note that the technology acceptance by an online media has been shown to influence the social presence. Cui et al. (2013) explain that instilling a sense of human touch and warmth and sociability can be reached through providing actual interaction with other people or through stimulating the imagination of user interacting on the online platforms.
Firstly, according to Wang et al. (2012), the social presence aspects can be provided in website through incorporation of website features such as email and after-sale service and support, creation of virtual groups and communities and chats, message board and human assistance online. In agreement, Jensen et al. (2014) explain that by providing a social connection among the users, this build up the trust as a cognitive relationship is established within the site which positively influences purchase intention or booking from the commercial sites. Jensen et al. (2014) stresses that it is therefore important to create a virtual shopping experience that will lure the masses, brands and their websites much engage the users both in the cognitive and social level.
Differently, Hu et al., (2016) note that other imaginary interactions that can be provided to the consumers to enhance more visitations to the sites include provision of rich social content through personalisation of greetings, human audio and videos and taking-face displays. Agreeing with Hu et al. (2016), Oberoi et al. (2017) explain that text and picture content can be used to convey a personal presence and the choice of picture and language will help in creating a sense of psychological warmth and closeness and encourage the users to engage more on the websites. For instance, Oberoi et al. (2017) suggest that texts that enhance and prompts the imagination of the users may evoke elaborate feelings of pleasure and fantasy involving the use of the products, which will, in turn, enhance the purchase and repurchase intention towards a service or product. Customers and website users are usually more willing to purchase products or service online when the emotive descriptions of touch properties are provided. Gao et al. (2017) maintain that pictures have a pronounced effect as compared to the text used to evoke a social presence. According to Miranda et al. (2015), the visual senses have been observed to have a more domineering effect on the human perception and this explains the influence of visual media and its impact on the social presence. Hu et al. (2016) research found that photographs that accompanied online articles were seen to increase its credibility. Similarly, Gao et al. (2017) found that player photos on an online game website were seen to evoke more social dilemma and cooperation among the players and website users. This explains why advertisement has for a long time relied on the imagery of friendly and attractive faces to develop a positive influence towards a service or a product. Oberoi et al. (2017) suggest that paying attention to a photos effectiveness, through either social display or emotionally, can be a key aspect to the success of electronic commerce. The perceived ease of use will refer to the consumer’s perception with regards to the result of their online shopping or booking experience and this can refer to the how easy it is to use the internet as a medium of shopping.
2.5 Perceived ease of use on hotel booking intentions
2.5.1 Definition perceived ease of use
As espoused by Maditinos (2013), in the Technology Acceptance Model, a user’s behavioural traits and intention to adopt or use a technology is usually determined by their perception of the technology with respect to their usefulness and its ease of use. Maditinos et al. (2013) define perceived ease of use as the extent to which an individual believes that using a specific system would require minimum effort. In the context of the online booking, perceived ease of use has been defined as the extent to which customers feel that the online booking is not difficult to adopt and is free from any effort in using it (Adbullah et al., 2017).
2.5.2 The influence perceived ease of use on hotel booking intentions
Shipps and Phillips, (2013) state that the perceived ease of use can be facilitated by an online platform through introducing different elements and tools that will make it easier to use a website. Shipps and Phillips, (2013 suggest that an individual will feel that it is easy to use a particular website when they are given easy access to information. Therefore, increasing the customer's access to online decision-making techniques and tools will increase the positive online shopping towards that site. The correlation between the two construct is that even when given full interactivity, the information quality will moderate the frequency of website visit (Renny et al., 2013). This means that if the customer perceives that they have can easily access any information, with the kind of information being sought to be readily available, the consumers will feel comfortable operating within that website.
Differently, Juniwati (2014) explains that the ease of use on an online platform can also be provided through availing tools for use. Particularly, Juniwati et al. (2014) opine that a website can make it easy to access the product or service through introducing the search tools of which type of information to be accessed about aspects such as the product features and the benefits sought. With such a tool, (Kucukusta and Law, 2015) the consumer can be able to seek a variety of information that can be used to examine the different alternatives before making a final decision on their preferred type of service or product to choose from.
Ease of use can further be created through making it easy for the consumer to understand any information being given on the site. Rodzi et al. (2016) noted that this can be reached through providing users with the option to choose any language they can use (e.g. English French, German, Korean or Chinese or Japanese) as a way of attracting and also accommodating international customers. Another option is to provide users with the ability to receive customised messages and information regarding specific products or events as a way of facilitating easy utilisation of the process of purchase of the product or navigation on the ecommerce platform (Rodzi et al., 2016). Finally, Cho and Saygynov (2015) assert that perceived ease of use has been strongly linked with the enjoyment of the consumers. Enjoyment in this sense refers to the degree to which using a system or technology is perceived to be fun in its own right.
In general, based on the two elements of information accessibility and search tools, convenience is a key factor that influences the consumer’s behaviour and attitudes within the online environment. According to the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), perceived ease of use has shown to have an effect on the consumer's intention to carry out their shopping online (Al-Qeisi et al., 2014). Al-Qeisi et al. (2014) observed that the direct approach can occur through perceived important because the easier the system is to use, the more significance it can be used. Bach et al. (2016) assert that with respect to online shopping, the dimension of convenience has been a primary motivation behind the consumer's behaviour to adopt online shopping. Hussein (2017) observed that the dimensions related to the convenience that online shopping provide the consumers include better access, possession and search and interaction all of which all these elements are related to the ease of use and speed to which the customers can engage or reach the retailer of their choice. It is therefore hypothesised that when the websites are easy to utilise and navigate through, this provides consumers with the intended and expected convenience to book.
2.6 Chapter Summary
Based on the literature review conducted, it is evident that the four constructs of two-way communication, responsiveness, perceived social presence and perceived ease of use have a significant impact on online booking intentions. Particularly, the four variables directly influence the intention of the consumers to use online booking platform through facilitation of convenience experienced during shopping, improving the timeliness of shopping online, improving the trustworthiness and improving better information access and convenience in using the sites to book for services or to purchase products. The four constructs positively impact on the satisfaction of the consumer which can consequently cultivate loyalty that can promote future repurchase intentions. Therefore, based on these findings this research will explore the impact of perceived website interactivity on hotel booking intention: the case of NUO Hotel Beijing.
Chapter 3 Research Methodology
This chapter outlines procedures followed during the research on establishing the impact of perceived website interactivity on hotel booking intention. Specifically, the development of this chapter is anchored on Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, (2009), research (in figure one below), which provides guidelines on the development of methodology followed in a research.
Figure 1. Research onion. Source: Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, (2009).
3.2 Secondary Data vs. Primary Data
Data used during a research can be broadly classified as either secondary or primary data based on the source the data is obtained from. Primary data refers to data originating for the first time by a researcher while secondary data source refers to data that is already collected for other purposes (Creswell, 2014). For this research the primary source of data will be used. This source is preferred for the research based on the fact that primary data will enable the research to achieve its objectives. Even though the process of obtaining primary data is tedious and time consuming as noted by Gifford (2016), it is the appropriate approach for this research because it will supply the research with data that is specifically collected for the purpose of determining the impact of perceived website interactivity on hotel booking intention. Secondary data is not applicable for this research because it will not enable the research achieve its objective based on the fact that secondary data as asserted by Gifford (2016), is collected for other purpose other than what the research seeks to achieve. Besides, this type of data is not appropriate for this kind of research because the data is outdated due to various changes that might have taken place between the time of collecting the data and the current time when this research is taking place.
3.3 Qualitative and Quantitative Research Approach
Depending on the research objective a research can either be qualitative or quantitative which in turn dictates the method or instrument of collecting data that can be employed during data collection (Smith, 2015). Qualitative research approach refers to a research that is exploratory in nature with the main objective being expanding and providing more understanding on a topic. On the other hand, quantitative research involves the use of empirical data which is statistically analysed to provide a meaningful information or a conclusion on a study question (Smith, 2015).
Quantitative research approach will be employed for this research because it will enable the research to collect data from a large sample thus enhancing the inclusiveness of the research findings (Marshal and Rossman, 2014). Additionally, quantitative approach is preferred for this research because achieving the objectives of this research requires that a relationship between two categories of variables (independent and dependent), be established which can only be achieved through the use of statistical techniques and this is in line with the quantitative research approach. The specific independent variables involved in this research which will be statistically analysed to determine how they impact customers booking intentions including two-way communication, responsiveness, perceived social presence and ease of use and booking intention. For this research qualitative research is not an option based on the fact that qualitative method will not provide a better mechanism of establishing the relationship between the identified independent variable and dependent variable while quantitative method through the use of statistical methods will enable the research to establish the relationship between the variables identified. However, as observed by Sekaran and Bougie (2016), interpreting the data obtained through quantitative method can be difficult but the fact that the conclusion of the research is backed by empirical data and has minimal bias and errors make the research reliable and credible.
3.4 Research Instruments
Research instruments are tools or techniques used in obtaining data from a sample (Obitz, 2009). From the various instruments of data collection, the technique used in a research mainly depend on the research approach adopted. For this research the study approach adopted is quantitative in nature hence questionnaire survey is used in line with this approach. Besides, questionnaire is as well compatible with the aim and objective of the research. therefore, questionnaire will enable the research to collect relevant data from participants that will assist in determining how the customers perceived hotel website interactivity impact on the customers booking intention. Because convenience sampling will be used, this makes questionnaire an ideal instrument of collecting data during the research. Lastly, as noted by Palacious and Evans (2013), the use of questionnaire enhances data collection from participants because it allows the participant to completely express themselves while maintaining an anonymous status. This as well minimises the chances of bias during data collection as participants are given their own private space to respond to the study questions thus enabling them to respond appropriately to the questions.
3.5 Data Collection
In order to establish the impact of perceived website interactivity to customers booking intention the research uses NUO hotel as a point of focus. The hotel is located in Beijing and it is preferred for the research because it is among the Hotels with well-established website that enables customers to view the services offered and even make bookings online (NUO Hotel, 2017). These characteristics with the inclusion of the fact that the Hotel support and encourage research aimed at improving service delivery in hospitality business makes it an appropriate case study for this research (NUO Hotel, 2017).
The survey objects entailed customers of NUO Hotel Beijing as their participation was deemed appropriate to achieve the research aim. To access the customers, the researcher logged in the social site of the hotel. Specifically, Sina Weibo was found appropriate as the hotel has many fans in that site. The research communicated with the fans through a private message explaining the research aim and objectives and then requesting them to willingly participate in the survey. Besides, the customers were assured that no personal information will be collected and the information obtained will be used for the purpose of this research and other use whatsoever. Using the same Sina Weibo platform, the researcher distributed the questionnaires to the willing participants, and then asked them to return them through the same platform, which offer the features to do that. Through this, the researcher was able to collect 160 valid questionnaires.
3.6 Data Analysis
The analysis of the data collected using questionnaire survey will be analysed using statistical methods. Statistical methods such as frequency, mean value and scatter plot analysis are utilised to analyse the data collected. Correlation analysis will as well be used to establish how the independent variables impact on the dependant variable. Frequency analysis will be used to analyse warm questions and demographic information of customers. In establishing the average number of people who make bookings in the hotel as a result of the interactivity of the website will be achieved using the mean analysis. Scatter plot diagram and correlation coefficient analysis will assist the research to establish the relationship between the independent variable of the research and the dependent variables thus enabling the research to achieve its aims and objectives.
3.7 Research Validity and Reliability
The validity of this research is anchored on the keenness to details that researchers are expected to adhere to during the research. The keenness is well evident with the techniques involved in doing the research particularly in the methodology chapter. Additionally, adopting quantitative approach of research and using questionnaire as an instrument of collecting data will enhance the accuracy of the data collected (Punch and Oancea 2014). Using statistical method of analysing the data collected will as well eliminate errors and bias during data analysis and interpretation (Punch and Oancea 2014).
3.8 Research Ethics
Throughout the research, ethical consideration continues to be observed and so is during data collection and analysis. Firstly, before the customers are involved in the research as participants, their informed consent will be solicited first in order to ensure that the participants are not involved in the research against their will. This will be achieved by disclosing the research aim and objectives to the study participants and ensure that they willingly participate without coercion. Besides, the information collected from participants will not be diverted to other uses apart from the sore use in achieving the research aim and objectives.