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BOP Full-Form: How a BOP Crisis Can Ruin a Country's Economy?

Umesh Kurmi is a semi-qualified Chartered Accountant from the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nepal with seven years of experience.


What is Balance of Payments in Economics?

The Balance of Payments (BOP) is a statement that mirrors generally money-related exchanges between residents of a nation and the remainder of the globe throughout a particular period. This statement covers all transactions made by/to individuals, corporations, and the government. It helps with checking the progression of monies used to develop the economy.

Ideally, when every one of the components is properly mirrored in the BOP, the aggregate ought to be zero. This implies that fund inflows and fund surges ought to be in equilibrium. However, in most circumstances, this does not occur optimally.

A nation's BOP proclamation shows whether the nation has a fund excess or shortfall, for example at the point when a country's commodities outperform its imports, the country's BOP is considered to be in overabundance. The BOP shortfall, then again, suggests that a nation's imports surpass its exports.


What are the Features of Balance of Payments?

The fundamental aspect of BOP is that it is a record-keeping system that aids in the systematic maintenance of all transactions between one country and the rest of the world. All transactions, such as export-import of commodities, services, and everything else, are included.

The inflow of foreign cash = Credit

The outflow of foreign cash = Debit

The records are kept in double-entry accounting forms. As a result, the balance will be equal.

Because duplicate entry is maintained, the overall BOP will always match, but individual accounts can display balances that indicate the inflow or outflow of funds.


Importance of Balance of Payment

A balance of payment is a significant document or transaction in the finance division since it gives data about a nation's and its economy's status.

It examines the exports all in all and imports of things and services for a particular time frame.

It helps the public expert in examining the potential for a specific industry's product development for export and making ways to deal to enable such development.

It furnishes the public authority with a bird's eye view of an assortment of import and export taxes. The public authority then takes more time to raise and lower duties to deter imports and lift exports, appropriately, and accomplish self-sufficiency.

Assuming the economy needs help in the form of imports, the public authority will follow the BOP and shift income and innovation to the negative area of the economy to look for future development.

The balance of payments additionally permits the public authority to survey the situation of the economy and get ready for future development. Financial and monetary policies are shaped in light of the nation's balance of payment conditions.


Components/Elements/Types of Balance of Payment

Without a current account, capital account, and financial account you cannot find BOP. In ideal conditions, the total of the current account = the capital + finance accounts.

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Current Account

The flow of goods and services between two countries is recorded in the current account. It records all receipts and payments for raw materials and delivered finished goods.

It also includes receipts from engineering, tourism, transportation, business, services, stocks, and patent and copyright royalties. When all goods and services are summed up, the resultant is a country's Balance of Trade (BOT).

There are various sorts of international trades and transfers that happen. Trading, whether visible or invisible, unilateral transfers, or other payments/receipts are all possibilities. Trade-in goods between countries are referred to as seen items, while trade-in services (banking, information technology, etc.) are referred to as unseen items.

Unilateral transfers mean gifts, donations, and personal transfers to family members living outside of the nation.

Capital Account

The spot to record generally capital exchanges between nations is the capital account. Capital exchanges include the purchase and disposal of fixed resources like land and properties.

The flow of taxes, acquisition, and disposal of fixed assets, and any transaction made by migrants moving into and out of the country will pass through the capital account. The current account shortage or excess is controlled utilizing finance from the capital account, as well as the other way around. A capital account consists of three basic components:

Loans and borrowings: The private and public sectors may have foreign currency loans. All forms of such foreign currency loans find a place in this section.

Investments: Non-residents' investments are monies invested in corporate equities.

Foreign exchange reserves: Such are held by a country's reserve bank. Such holds are utilized to screen and control the exchange rate. Fluctuations in the exchange rate affect the capital account.

Financial Account

The financial account tracks the flow of money from and to foreign nations using different investments in land, business endeavors, FDIs, etc. Foreign investors may have a stake in domestic assets and conversely, domestic investors may have a stake in foreign assets. The changes in the level of their stakeholding are kept in the financial account. The government will quantify the changes to figure out whether the country is selling more assets like gold, stocks, equity, etc., or making purchases thereof.


How to Calculate Balance of Payment?


The thought is that when the equilibriums of the three records are added together, the net ought to be zero. So:

BOP = Current Account + Financial Account + Capital Account + Balancing Item

Difference or balancing item will reveal whether there is a foreign exchange deficit or surplus.

Steps to calculate the BOP

  1. Figure out the current account balance. The trading of wares and services between nations is recorded here.
  2. Determine the entire Capital account. Non-Financial Investments are recorded here. The investment can come from foreign countries or your own country.
  3. Determine the overall financial account. It is comprised of monetary investments, either inflows or outpourings.
  4. Determine the BOP balance.

This equilibrium could be an excess or a deficiency. Reserves should be utilized to adjust the foreign trade inequality.


Example of Balance of Payments

On the off chance that the worth of sent-out products from India in 2022 is Rs. 800 million and the worth of brought products into India is Rs. 1000 million, India will have an exchange deficit of Rs. 200 million in 2022. The BOP proclamation is a financial pointer that distinguishes a nation's import/export imbalance or excess. Analyzing and comprehending a country's BOP entails more than simply subtracting outflows of funds from inflows. As previously stated, the BOP has several components, and fluctuations in these accounts provide a clear indicator of which sectors of the economy need to be improved.


Balance of Payment Crisis/Disequilibrium

Due to a large macroeconomic imbalance, India experienced a Balance of Payments crisis in 1991. The Balance of Payments (BoP) Crisis is also known as a currency crisis. It happens when a country is unable to pay for vital imports or service its external debt.

In 1989-90, the normal pace of inflation was 7.5 percent, ascending to 10 percent in 1990-91. In 1991-92, it surpassed 13%. The GDP development rate tumbled from 6.5 percent in 1989-90 to 5.5 percent in 1990-91.

The industrial sector's performance was also impacted by the Balance of Payments issue. In the final part of the 1980s, the normal pace of modern development was 8%. It was 8.6 percent in 1989-90 and 8.2 percent in 1990-91.

On December 31, 1989, India's forex reserves remained at Rs. 5,277 crore, however, had tumbled to Rs. 2,152 crore toward the finish of December 1990. These reserves fluctuated from Rs. 2,500 crore to Rs. 3,300 crore during May and July 1991.


What were the Causes of the Balance of Payment Crisis 1991?

There was a huge macroeconomic irregularity, with an enormous current account deficiency and a huge budget shortfall. The disaster didn't rise out of any place. Decades of imprudence were to blame. There was a prominence on uncensored drives. Coming up next are the reasons for the Balance of Payments Crisis.

  • The Government Expenditure exceeded the Earnings. Subsequently, the fiscal shortfall was enormous. The Gross Fiscal Deficit expanded from 9% of GDP in 1980-81 to 12.7% of GDP in 1990-91.
  • Because of the aforementioned rationale, the government's internal debt increased. It expanded from 35% of GDP in 1985-86 to 53% of GDP in 1990-91.
  • Besides, the nation was bringing in more than it was sending out. Therefore, the current account shortage was enormous.
  • This account awkwardness was brought about by the expansion in raw petroleum costs because of the Gulf War. As a result, India's forex reserves were severely depleted. Despite significant IMF (International Monetary Fund) borrowings earlier in the year.
  • By June 1991, India had less than $1 billion in foreign exchange reserves, barely enough to cover imports for three weeks.
  • India needed adequate foreign exchange reserve to lead worldwide trade.
  • India was going to fall flat on its global obligation commitments.
  • Investors withdrew their funds.
  • Short-term finance dried up as exporters feared they would not be reimbursed.
  • Inflation rates increased dramatically.

The preceding crisis was labeled as a Balance of Payments Crisis.


BOP full-form in Oil and Gas

BOP is an acronym for a Blowout Preventer. BOPs are regarded as one of the most crucial and critical components on a drilling site since they aid in managing the back pressure kick inside the wellbore. Because the principal option for managing the back pressure kick in the wellbore is the weight of the mud itself while drilling a well, these objects are viewed as a secondary alternative.

At the point when the heaviness of the mud in a well falls underneath the tension of the development liquids, the essential control is gone, empowering liquids to enter the wellbore. If the fluids that enter the wellbore are not regulated and circulated out, a great amount of pressure is created, which is felt like a back pressure kick at the wellhead and will result in a blowout on the surface. This can result in serious environmental and property damage, as well as fatalities. As a result, BOPs serve as a supplementary pressure control mechanism, controlling the back pressure kick and therefore preserving the environment, property, and lives of those working on the rig.

BOPs are classified as Annular BOPs or Ram BOPs, and they function similarly to valves, opening and closing to relieve pressure and circulate surplus fluid via the outlet port. They work based on water-driven liquid under tension by the utilization of a collector.



What is BOP crisis UPSC?

The Balance of Payments (BOP) Crisis is also known as a currency crisis. It happens when a country is unable to pay for vital imports or service its external debt.

What does BOP stand for in engineering?

The term balance of plant (BOP) refers to all of the supporting components and auxiliary systems of a power plant that are required to deliver electricity, other than the producing unit itself.

What is deficit BOP?

A BOP shortfall demonstrates that the nation imports more merchandise, capital, and services than it sends out. It should take from different nations to pay for its imports.

What is the importance of BOP?

It examines the commodities as a whole and imports of items and services for a specific time frame period. It assists the government in analyzing the potential for a specific industry's export growth and developing policies to encourage such growth.

What are equilibrium and disequilibrium in BOP?

When the demand and supply of any foreign currency in a country are equal in a certain period, it is referred to as an 'equilibrium position' in the balance of payment. Disequilibrium indicates that the situation is either deficiency or surplus.

Who compiles the balance of payment in India?

Since 1948, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has been accumulating and disseminating India's Balance of Payments (BoP) data.

What causes a BOP crisis?

A rapid and significant growth in a country's trade deficit is a traditional cause of balance-of-payments crises. Such an increase could occur, for example, if adverse weather conditions significantly restrict the output of major export commodities and export earnings.

What caused the BOP crisis in India?

The economic crisis was caused mostly by significant and increasing fiscal imbalances in the 1980s. India started to have balance-of-payments issues during the 1980s. As a result of the Gulf War, India's oil import bill increased, exports fell, credit dried up, and investors withdrew their funds.

How can we overcome the BOP crisis?

To handle the emergency, the public authority ought to execute an assortment of monetary, financial, exchange, and industrial policies. Since mid-1991, the Indian economy has deviated from previous post-independence plans.

Is BOP always in equilibrium?

A nation's BOP should generally be in balance; an excess on one record should be counterbalanced by a deficiency of equivalent extents on the other. Thus, the amount of the capital and current records should generally be zero, bringing about a bookkeeping balance in the BOP.

What is surplus BOP?

A surplus BOP indicates that the country exports more than it imports. It supplies sufficient capital to cover all domestic production. The country may even lend beyond its borders. In the short run, a surplus may enhance economic growth. There are sufficient surplus savings to lend to countries that purchase its products.

How we can maintain the balance of the payment account?

All foreign receipts are recorded as credits in the BoP accounts, while all foreign payments are recorded as debits.

Is BOP a flow concept?

The concept of Balance of Payments is a 'FLOW' concept. The Balance of Payments (BOP) is a statement that mirrors generally money-related exchanges between residents of a nation and the remainder of the globe throughout a particular period.

Is forex a part of BOP?

Yes. After selling a product to a US corporation, India obtains foreign currency. Thus, India acquires buying power in the worldwide market. Therefore, this exchange is reflected in India's BOP accounts on the credit side.

What is the BOP statement?

The Balance of Payments (BOP) is a statement that mirrors generally money-related exchanges between residents of a nation and the remainder of the globe throughout a particular period.

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

© 2022 Umesh Kurmi

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