Nyamweya is a global researcher with many years of experience on practical research on a diversity of topics
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Research Background
The subject of international work assignments has received a considerable level of attention from management scholars. This is particularly in regard to the issue of international human resource management (Li, 2016). As observed by Okpara and Kabongo (2010), businesses and corporations are now increasingly required to send managers and expatriates to foreign locations where their businesses are based. International corporations have also increasingly noted the advantages of utilizing individual with sufficient skills and experiences in efficient management and operations of their respective international firms. Furthermore, there is a preference for business owners to use only those people who are socialized into the firm and those who are well known to them. This reliance of people who are well socialized into the firm and those well known by the company is used as a means of avoiding agency problems commonly related with the management of diverse organisations in various parts of the world (Claus et al, 2011). Therefore, international assignments have been occasionally used as a means of dealing with agency issues that emanate as a consequence of management and ownership alongside their intensification through distance.
Expansion of businesses in the global business arena has mandated local human resource practices to adapt to international practice level (Claus et al., 2011). However, this shifting has brought with them different level of challenges for HR researchers and professionals. Accordingly, job performance and expatriate adjustment are considered as among critical challenges facing international human resource operations globally (Claus et al., 2011). Multinational firms have assigned a diverse range of expatriates for their foreign companies to enable them achieve their stated business objectives. Furthermore, these entities have recognized the role played by expatriates in improving the general performance of their firms. As such, multinational firms have also invested expansive amount of effort and resources to enhance their performance. This is after the realization that enhanced performance of foreign operations is based on effective performance of expatriates (Ramalu, and Rose, 2011). Stated differently, it has been determined that the performance of expatriates is important for the success or failure of organizations.
Due to globalisation, and Chinese economic development, many Chinese expatriates and professionals have been required to work in regions that are far from their homes. Chinese ideology of economic development has mandated many Chinese companies to establish their branches in different parts of the world including in Western, Asia and African countries. Working in a country with a different culture is always challenging to new employees. This is particularly for those people who do not have the necessary language ability and cultural knowledge of the host nation. Therefore, while in foreign countries, Chinese expatriates and professionals face a myriad of challenges when adjusting to the new environment (Shen and Jiang, 2015). This study seeks to analyze the job factors affecting Chinese expatriates when working in India. The case study selected for this research is Huawei Corporation.
1.2 Case study organisation: Huawei Company
Huawei Technologies Ltd is a Chinese multinational company dealing with telecommunication equipments and networking services. This company which is the largest manufacturer of telecommunication equipments globally is headquartered in Guangdong, China (Huawei, 2018). Initially established as a solely phone switch manufacturer, Huawei has since expanded its business portfolio to include the manufacturer and distribution of telecommunication devices, telecommunication networks, provision of consulting and operational services to firms locally and internationally. Currently, the company boasts of around 170,000 workers in its global operations (Bloomberg, 2018).
As part of its international marketing approach, Huawei opted to establish its presence in the Indian market in 2000 (Huawei, 2018). In order to compete and succeed in this market, Huawei invested its resources heavily and analyzed the market features to determine the best strategy to apply. However, the company encountered a myriad of barriers to its endeavour among of which included cultural barriers which it needed to deal with for a smooth operation. It should also be noted Chinese companies are among the notorious ones in using expatriates from their own countries rather than outsourcing them from the host nations (Goswami and Witzel, 2012). Therefore, the strategies that the company employed in making its employees resilient and confine to the Indian culture need to be analyzed for possible replication by other companies. The challenges which these employees faced also need to be explored to provide insights for international human resource practitioners.
1.3 Significance of the Research
Findings from this research will provide key insights to international human resource managers and business owners on the factors hindering expatriates in executing their duties effectively in foreign countries. Furthermore, the results will guide Chinese companies, as well as other related business entities to assess the adjustment of their expatriates. In addition, the level of knowledge for employees working or wishing to work in other nations will also be raised. Furthermore, researchers will as well be triggered by the findings and work towards undertaking more studies to determine the job factors affecting expatriates from other backgrounds. Other areas of the human resource subject will also be explored using the insights generated from this research.
1.4 Research Aim and Objectives
The general focus of this research study is to investigate the impact of job factors on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment. Precisely, the study will take Huawei India, which is a subsidiary of Huawei Technologies Ltd., as the case study. To achieve this aim, the study will address the following objectives:
1. To analyse the impact of role clarity on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment in Huawei India
2. To evaluate the impact of role novelty on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment in Huawei India
3. To determine the impact of role conflict on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment in Huawei India
4. To explore the impact of role discretion on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment in Huawei India
Chapter 3: Methodology
This chapter discusses the most preferred research methods for the research on the impact of job factors (role novelty, role clarity, role discretion, and role conflict) on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment, using Huawei India as case example. In other words, the chapter explores the relevant research philosophies, approaches, strategies, and instruments/tools and provides a rationale for adopting the most preferable research methods that will allow the researcher to meet the research’s objectives (highlighted in chapter 1). This chapter also discusses the research participants, data collection process, and the most effective sampling and data analysis method for the research as well as provides a rationale or reasons for adopting them. Equally important for this research, this chapter discusses the ethical guidelines that will inform the researcher throughout the research process. It concludes with the key findings emerging from the whole chapter.
3.2 Philosophical perspective of the research
The philosophical perspectives in research include; realism, interpretivism, pragmatism, and positivism (Chawla and Sodhi, 2011). However, the common positions, whether ontological or epistemological which researchers undertake are interpretivism and positivism (Maxwell, 2012). Researchers adopting positivism research philosophy believe that hypothesis is tested using either empirical research or direct observations (Maxwell, 2012). This philosophy relies on scientific methods and quantitative analysis, for example, the use of statistical methods (Flick, 2014). On the other hand, interpretivism research philosophers believe that knowledge and meaningful reality are constructed socially, for example, through human interactions with the world (Creswell, 2014). This philosophy will be adopted in the research on the impact of job factors (role novelty, role clarity, role discretion, and role conflict) on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment, using Huawei India as case example. The rationale behind its adoption is that it will enable the researcher to stress on the real evidence regarding how factors such as role novelty, role clarity, role discretion, and role conflict impact or affect Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment. This reason is in line with the postulation of Merriam (2015) that interpretivism best suits a research that relies on the individuals’ comprehension of the subject matter. As such and considering that this research relies on the views of the Chinese expatriates working for Huawei India, interpretivism perspective is the most suitable philosophy for this research because it will enable the researcher to get information from individuals with Chinese expatriates’ experience.
3.3 Research approach -inductive vs deductive approach
Researchers adopting inductive approach aim to generate new theories that emerge from data, and as such, they use research questions more than often in a bid to narrow down the scope of their study/research (Maxwell, 2012). This research adopts inductive reasoning because it is associated with qualitative research as opposed to deductive approach which supports quantitative research (Kazdin, 2011). As such, the approach will enable the researcher to identify the the impact of job factors (role novelty, role clarity, role discretion, and role conflict) on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment. In reference to Creswell (2014), inductive reasoning is more flexible compared to inductive approach considering that it does not rely or depend on fixed theory during the process of data collection. As such, the researcher will be able to collect fresh data and explore the existing theories regarding the research topic before making generalisations.
3.4 Quantitative vs Qualitative data
A research adopting qualitative research approach seeks to understand the social being or reality of groups or individuals, thus, focuses on participants who live it or feel it (participants studied in their respective natural settings) (Maxwell, 2012). According to Creswell (2014), qualitative research is exploratory and focuses on explaining ‘why’ and ‘how’ of a particular phenomenon or behaviour. On the other hand, researchers adopting quantitative approach focus on testing theory/theories and ultimately reject or support it/them (Taylor, 2005). Additionally, quantitative research approach focuses on mathematical calculations, numbers, and scientific statistics which can be computed and calculated (Kazdin, 2011). The research on the impact of job factors (role novelty, role clarity, role discretion, and role conflict) on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment will adopt qualitative approach because of several reasons. To begin with, based on the fact that qualitative research studies target participants in their respective natural settings or social reality, this approach will enable the researcher to study how job factors impact on Chinese expatriates in Huawei India. Secondly, based on the fact that this research seeks to understand the social being or reality of the Chinese expatriates in Huawei India, quantitative research is not suitable because it focuses on testing theory/theories and ultimately reject or support it/them. These reasons inform why qualitative research approach is the most ideal for this research.
3.5 Research strategy
Research strategy refers to the path or method used by researchers to identify their appropriate sample and collect reliable and credible information or data from it (Flick, 2014). Examples of the research strategies include; ethnography, survey research, case study, experimentation and grounded theory (Taylor, 2005). However, the most common research strategies include; ethnography, case study, and grounded theory. In case study strategy, researchers examine specific issues of concern within boundaries/boundary, for example, a specific situation, a firm, an institution, or an environment (Maxwell, 2012). When adopting ethnography research strategy, the researchers’ focus is to explore or observe the cultural phenomenon a society based on their research study’s point of view (Kazdin, 2011). Lastly, in grounded theory, researchers establish middle-level theories which must be founded directly from the analysis of the collected data (Davies and Hughes, 2014).
The most ideal research strategy for this research is case study strategy. The researcher will specifically use Huawei India to research on the impact of job factors (role novelty, role clarity, role discretion, and role conflict) on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment. One of the reasons behind adopting this strategy is that it will allow the researcher to ask participants questions and generate enough and valid data to aid in meeting the research’s objectives. Case study strategy is important in event explanation and recounting (Given, 2008). As such, case study strategy will help the research to explain and recount the impact of job factors (role novelty, role clarity, role discretion, and role conflict) on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment. This is because it will expose the researcher to real-life happenings or situation of Chinese expatriates in Huawei India.
3.6 Research Participants
To fully meet all objectives of this research, the investigator was required to identity credible research participants. Precisely, this study comprises the population of employees from Huawei India, since it is the main case study. Preferably, the investigator will choose a sample of Chinese expatriates (participants who have been sent from China to India subsidiary as expatriates). Therefore, to make the research more credible, the main participants were the Chinese workers in Huawei India (Chinese expatriates).
3.7 Research Instruments
The most common research instruments in research include; desk research, classroom observation, interviews, focus groups, and questionnaires, among others (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2015). In the research on the impact of job factors on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment, the researcher will adopt interviews to collect data. Interviews enable researchers to collect first-hand data from participants who have knowledge or experience the study problem (Flick, 2014). As such, by adopting interviews in this research, the researcher will be able to obtain comprehensive information on the level of work adjustments amongst Chinese expatriates in Huawei India. Secondly, interviews are the most ideal for this research because they are used qualitative research. Thirdly, interviews enable researchers to observe and analyse the body language of the participants which play a huge role in making generalisations (Chawla & Sodhi, 2011). Based on this, the researcher will be able to measure the attitudes of the respondents, thus, will obtain comprehensive information on the level of work adjustments amongst Chinese expatriates in Huawei India. This is because through the interviews, the researcher will be able to tell if the participants are providing genuine opinions, thus, will make informed conclusions from the same. The interviews will be conducted using ‘layman’ language in a bid to enhance a high level of understanding amongst the respondents. By using interviews to collect data, the researcher will have enough time for interacting and communicating with the selected respondents, thus, generate enough information for analysis.
3.8 Data Collection and gaining access
The process of data collection in this research will involve selecting the appropriate tools for gathering data for the study in a bid to address the research objectives. The researcher will first seek permission from the management of Huawei India, and subsequently compose an email to the company approximately two weeks in advance in order to ensure that the management has adequate time to set up the place for the interview. After being granted permission, the researcher will visit Huawei corporation in India and request the Chinese employees to take part in the interviews. Through the help of a family-friend who happens to be one of the managers in Huawei India, the researcher will identity 4 middle-level managers and 6 employees who are Chinese expatriates from the company who will be the main respondents to the interview questions. The researcher will conduct face-to-face interviews with the 4 middle-level managers and the 6 employees (Chinese expatriates). By selecting the middle managers, it will be easier for the researcher to identify credible information to meet the research objectives considering that they are more familiar with the performance and well-being of the Chinese expatriates at Huawei India. Moreover, by relying on the 6 Chinese expatriates, the researcher will be able to know the real factors affecting their work adjustments. Each of the interview session will take about 20 minutes.
To get access to the interviewees, the research will have to follow certain modalities and procedures. This will ensure that there are no cases of intrusion, which is unethical and may risk the researcher from being rejected by the management of Huawei India. Therefore, in order to gain access, the investigator will send a formal request letter to the management at Huawei, India. This letter will highlight the main reason for conducting the interviews at that particular time and how the research is useful to the investigator’s academic progress as well as the company. To access the respondents, the researcher will rely on a family-friend (who happens to be a manager in the company) to physically meet the Chinese employees in Huawei India and request them to take part in the interviews. During the meeting, the investigator will make a personal introduction to the selected employee and inform them the purpose of the study. The respondents to be selected must have more than 3 years work experience at the Huawei firm to prove that they have adequate knowledge about the operations of the company. Each of the respondents will be interviewed separately within the company offices. The researcher subsequently recorded and stored the interviews safely in a laptop for further analysis. Table 3.1 presents the demographic information of the participants
Table 3-1 Demographics of the respondents
Length of stay in India
Software development officer (Employee)
Procurement officer (Employee)
Human Resource Manager
IT and Systems Officer
Technical Officer (Employee)
Data Analyst (Employee)
System Development Manager
Head of Engineering Department (Manager)
Innovation & Research Manager
R & D
From table 3-1, ten respondents were included in the study. They were drawn from the departments of software development, procurement, IT and systems operations, Maintenance/Engineer digital and technical department. While four of the respondents were female, 6 of them were male.
3.9 Data analysis
Considering that this research focuses on obtaining qualitative data, the researcher will use the content analysis technique. According to Bryman & Bell (2015), content analysis is a research technique in which the researcher identifies the similarities and differences that are found in the qualitative data and then draw informed generalisations.
In this research, the researchers will identity the key words derived from the interviews. The coding process will then take place, after which the researcher will evaluate both the similarities and differences that will be identified from the collected information/data. The similarities and differences will be identified by the investigator through searching for key words found in the responses of the participants. Based on the variations and correspondence of the responses, the investigator will manage to form a general view and come up with solid and conclusive findings for each research objective. Lastly, to ensure a complete and successful data analysis process, the researcher will compare the analysed information with previous literature related to the research topic. This will help in determining if the research findings were true and credible or untrue.
3.10 Research ethics
When conducting any research, there is need to follow and observe certain ethical guidelines and practices (Bryman & Bell, 2015). In this research, the researcher will begin by seeking permission from the company’s top management before selecting the respondents or conducting the research to avoid cases of unethical intrusion. This will ensure that Huawei India is informed on the intention and duration of the investigation/research. Secondly, the researcher will pledge to remain anonymous by not disclosing those who took part in the interviews. For instance, the participants’ names will be interview A, B, C, D, and E. This will ensure that the participants are comfortable with the level of confidentiality, thus, give honest feedback and opinions when answering the interview questions. Additionally, before setting up the interview, the researcher will request for informed consent from the interviewees. The aim of this consideration is to make sure that the identified respondents participated in the interview willingly without being coerced. The researcher is also expected to maintain high confidentiality on the responses provided. To do this, the investigator will safeguard the responses in a laptop secured with a password. It will also be important to ensure that data is not shared with third parties without the respondents’ consent. Moreover, the researcher will maintain utmost confidentiality of all the responses provided by safeguarding the forms containing the data under lock-and-key. The researcher also will ensure that the data will not be shared with any third party without the permission of the respondents. Furthermore, in case the researcher would like to use the data for other purposes other than those intended, prior permission will be sought from them. Observing these ethical practices will ensure that the process of gathering data is credible.
3.11 Chapter Summary
This research will adopt the most effective methods to collect reliable and credible data to help the researcher to meet the research objectives. They include; interpretivism research philosophy, case study research strategy, qualitative data research, interview research instrument, and content analysis method. Through the help of a family-friend who happens to be one of the managers in Huawei India, the researcher will identity 2 middle-level managers and 4 Chinese expatriates from the company who will be the main respondents to the interview questions. The researcher will also conform to ethical guidelines and practices throughout the research process.
Chapter 4 Findings and Analysis
In this chapter, the findings generated from the research are presented alongside the researcher’s analysis in line with the key themes arising from the data. These objectives include a) To analyse the impact of role clarity on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment in Huawei India, b), to evaluate the impact of role novelty on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment in Huawei India, c) to determine the impact of role conflict on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment in Huawei India and finally d) to explore the impact of role discretion on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment in Huawei India. The researcher will then proceed to analyse the findings using content analysis technique where the responses will be arranged thematically.
4.2 Analysis of the findings
4.2.1 Objective 1: To analyse the impact of role clarity on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment in Huawei India
Theme 1: Expatriates’ satisfaction living in India
Q1 was a warm up question to respondents and required them to state if they were satisfied living in India. The general impression from the responses is that about half of those interviewed claimed that their satisfaction level with regard to life in India was low while a lower number stated that their satisfaction level regarding their living in India was high. Those who were not satisfied with the life in India gave their reasons as culture shock, unfavourable workplace and environmental conditions like pollution, negative view of female Chinese leaders by the locals leading to disrespect, different customs and behaviour, poor time keeping, mistrust among the locals and people who are too emotional. Interviewees who said that they were satisfied gave their reasons including cheap cost of living, the hospitality of the people, uniqueness of the culture and people, and strong economy.
Interviewee A, B, D, F, H, and I said that their level of satisfaction in Indian life was relatively low. The sentiments on those with low satisfaction level can better be represented by interviewee D who articulates “to be frank, my satisfaction in India is low, going by the number of conflicts and differences with my nation. The problem stems from failure of the Indians to adhere to punctuality, the argumentative nature of Indian personnel and colleagues, the high rate of diversity in the country, people who are too emotional, and lack of trust among Indians. I believe these experiences will definitely create a hard time with Chinese expatriates. In fact, I am contemplating going back to my country next year”. However, interviewees C, E and J had a different view and contrary to their counterparts and insinuated that they were satisfied with their life in India. These sentiments can be represented by interviewee E who said “I am generally satisfied to work and live in India. I cannot fail to appreciate the hospitality of the people here, the low cost of living compared even to that of China, the stable economy and the strong currency. Despite challenges here and there, the work environment is generally conducive, at least to my perspective” The implication of these responses is that while a larger number of Chinese expatriates were unsatisfied in living in India, there were sections of them who did not have much problems on that. Hofstede Insights (2019) confirms the prevalence of significant cultural differences between China and India, especially in regard to individualism and long term orientalism. It is on this perspective that Chinese expatriates may find it hard to adjust to a new culture which favors individualism while also being oriented towards long term goals. In terms of individualism, China and India has a score of 20 and 48 respectively showing that China is more of collectivist culture while India is both individualistic and collectivistic. This implies that Chinese expatriates in India are expected to maintain a balance on their work performance both at the group level and individual level in order to minimise organisatioal conflicts (Hofstede Insights, 2019). Regarding long term orientation and advantages in their jobs as rewards in the distant future, as such they are able adjust quickly regardless of the challenges they face in India. This could be the reason why a signicant number of expatriates stated that they were satisfied living in India.
Theme 2: Requirements in the job position as an expatriate in Huawei in India
Question 2 required interviewees to explain the requirements in their respective positions of work as an expatriate in Huawei India. As cited by the interviewees, key requirements of expatriates in effective performance of their duties in the foreign market (in this case India) include the necessary skills, knowledge, and experience in the specific profession. Interviewee A, B, D, F, G, H, I and J noted that employment Visa, necessary expertise/skills, work permit, Permanent Account Number (PAN) and registration with the Regional Registration Office (FRRO) as some of the key requirements. These views are better represented by interviewee A who articulated that “The requirements are basically the skills, knowledge and experience in executing the responsibilities. Furthermore, the expatriates must also understand the behaviors, policies, culture, goals and missions of the company in order to effectively achieve the stated objectives. The personnel has also to understand his or her role and adhere to all company procedures in undertaking the responsibilities”. On the other hand, interviewee C notes that an understanding of the new environment (such as weather conditions), culture (such as the way people relate to one another) and behavior of people in the new country (such as whether they keep time) is paramount for an expertise. On his part, interviewee E argues that specific personality traits were essential in succeeding in the new work environment as postulated I his comment “Among the requirements for expatriates in Huawei in India are specific personality traits such as ability to adapt to new work environments, ability to cope with the new climate, ability to learn and accommodate new language, culture and understand people, as well as the necessary experience in executing my mandate”.
Theme 3: Expatriates’ ability to predict the outcome of their work
Question 3 required interviewees to explain their ability to predict the outcome of their work as well as in working out suitable strategies to execute their job requirements. Accordingly, the interviewees answered to the affirmative regarding their ability to predict the outcome of their work. Furthermore, they were also able to determine the appropriate strategies in specific contexts, and use or tailor them to meet specific targets. Interviewee C, E, G, H and I gave similar viewpoint that there is a particular strategy and guideline they were required to follow. However, interviewee A, B and F also gave related opinion noting that they were supposed to constantly work towards achieving the goals and missions set out by the company hence they were aware of what they were supposed to achieve. On to the other hand, interviewee D observes. “Sure, I always know what is required of me and as such, I sit down, and plan adequately on how to execute my role and hence achieve the expectations. This requires planning, strategizing, determination and a sense of focus in order to succeed in your role”. While interviewee J said that “Not really because we are trained to prepare for uncertainties which are obvious in a company such as ours. However, whenever things do not come out as projected, then we have to rework on the strategies to straighten them”.
Theme 4: Impact of role clarity on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment in Huawei India
Q4 required respondents to explain how their understanding of position requirements affected their work adjustment in Huawei India. Various responses were given including the need to take some time in learning the new environment, new culture, new people as well as the need to retrain for the new roles in the new region. Interviewees A, I and J noted that they are more efficient and effective in their roles as a result of their understanding of the position requirements. Interviewees D E, F, G and H noted the need to retrain and reorient themselves with the new skills and culture in the new work environment. On the other hand, interviewee B and C confessed to have experienced culture shock and language problems as they were not exposed to the new environment. The experiences of interviewee B presents the position of the company in regard to the need for expatriates to familiarize themselves with position requirements in their respective jobs “We are required to undertake adequate research on the position requirements in the foreign designation prior to moving in there. Failure to undertake sufficient research on the requirements means that the culture shock may have a drilling effect on you and hence affect you works adjustment in the new location. Myself, I had sufficient knowledge on the new environment and position requirements and hence I worked out on how to adjust myself to work prior to moving to India”.
4.2.2 Objective 2: To evaluate the impact of role novelty on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment in Huawei India
Theme 1: The difference between past role and the new role of Chinese expatriates in Huawei India
Q5 asked interviewees to explain the difference between their past role and the new role as an expatriate in Huawei India. Accordingly, the respondents acknowledged the prevalence on the differences on their past and current roles in the new workstation. Interviewees cited the differences related to cultures, organisational processes, systems, new work policies and procedures, new strategies, new methods, authority expectations, power, target, and objectives. interviewees B, C, D and J pointed cultural differences in terms of lifestyle, new behaviours, new work routines and procedures as well as higher expectations. There is also less respect and negative perception among women expatriates in India compared to China. Alongside these is longer working hours, higher expectations required of “foreign experts” in terms of job input, production, quality and so on. This is explained by interviewee B who opines “Yes there is a difference in my past role and new role. Consequently, I do feel that I have little impact or influence on my new role concerning the general lack of respect among male and female employees on women leaders as well as the higher expectations required of “foreign experts” in terms of job input, production, quality etc. The locals believe that as foreign experts we are in a position to “fix it all” and solve every single problem that emerges. However, this was not so in my former role where our limitations were considered”. Because of these differences, many of these expatriates experienced confusion and had to take time learning the new environment, the new culture, the new processes and the new systems. However, interviewee A, E, G and I did not observe a significant level of differences although they admit working more hours, and poor work-life balance. Interviewee A tells us “For me, there is no much differences except that I had to relearn the new cultures, the new behaviours, and the diversity of people in my new postings. However, I always find myself working more hours in India, precisely about two to three more hours than my previous role. This means that some hours which I could have used with my family or leisure are used in work contexts”. On the other hand, interviewee F and H cited new equipments, machines and processes in the new work environment.
Theme 2: Expatriate’s level of understanding on the skills and methods required to perform their jobs
Q6 required interviewees to state how well they understand the skills, tasks and methods required to perform their work in Huawei India. Majority of them claimed to be well acquainted with the skills, knowledge and experience, which are augmented by the training and development programs initiated by the Company for its expatriates assigned overseas roles. Interviewees A, B, C, F, H and J agreed that they possessed the required skills, knowledge and experience in their respective jobs. This is captured by the response of interviewee B who says “I am well acquainted with the necessary skills, knowledge as well the tasks and strategies needed in achieving the objectives. The company is also cognizant of this need and as such, the management has to reorient the expert personnel through training and development initiatives on a regular basis”. However, interviewees D, E, G and I admitted to be not well acquainted with the culture, people behaviour, work policies/regulations and organisation behaviour of the new environment as expressed in the sentiments of interviewee E “I am quite conversant with the skills, tasks and methods required in undertaking my day to day operations at Huawei India. However, sometimes we feel a sense of resistance in ourselves when new tools, machines, technology and processes have been introduced. Learning to work with the new tools, equipments, technology, strategies and processes without having to be trained on them may at times become a cumbersome endeavour. This thus raises the need for a continuous training and development program in our organisation”.
Theme 3: The impact of role novelty on expatriates’ work adjustment in Huawei India
Q7 which asked the interviewees to state the impact of the difference between their past role and the new role as an expatriate and how it influences their work adjustment in Huawei India. Majority of the interviewees acknowledged that they had to take some time for research, induction, training and development programs so as to be able to effectively adapt to the new work environment. The interviewees A, C, E, H, F, and J acknowledged that they had to take some time for research, induction, training and development programs so as to be able to effectively adapt to the new work environment. Interviewee B, D, and G stated that they were forced to change their style of working, change their attitude, and learn how to interact or cope with the locals and in understanding the new systems and procedures on a practical level. Consequently, these experiences lowered their attitude, production and sociability until when they became used to it. Interviewee C puts this even in a better perspective “My efficiency and general productivity dropped for some time until I was able to catch up with the new environment. Further, I had to deal with body fatigue and tireless because of the strict work routines in India”. Interestingly, interviewee I did not see any impact on the differences between the past and current roles.
4.2.3 Objective 3: To determine the impact of role conflict on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment in Huawei India
Theme 1: Incompatibilities or conflicts experienced by Chinese expatriates in Huawei India
Q8 required interviewees to state some of the incompatibilities or conflicts regarding their job expectations they experienced as expatriates in Huawei India. Interviewees identified poor work life balance associated with the longer work hours, lack of respect for women expatriates, higher expectations and target and new work policies, culture and regulations. Interviewees A, B, F, I and J cited high rate of insecurity making the Chinese to live in constant fear, lack of cooperation among the local, the higher rate of diversity, different environment, organisational behaviour, and lack of regard for time-keeping. On their part, interviewee D, C and H noted that Indians are known for not adhering to due process hence; causing confusion among the Chinese. Consequently, the impact is delayed adjustments, inefficiency and conflict with Indian colleagues as noted by interviewee D “As a result of the local culture and people differences, there are many occasions I was forced to start some of my tasks and meetings late or postpone them because either the supplier had not delivered the materials, the workers and colleagues arriving late. I also found myself arguing a lot with the local staff as this was their nature. It was also interesting to note that unlike back in China were processes are adhered; Indians do not like following due process and I literary found it hard adjusting to this system of operations”. Interestingly interviewee G did not notice a significant level of impact as articulated in this statement “For me, I think the impact is insignificant because we just need a short time to readjust to our new workplaces. As long as you are conversant with the new environment and culture, then you are ready to go”.
Theme 2: The impact of role conflict on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment in Huawei India
Q9 required interviewees to elaborate on how the incompatibilities and conflicts regarding their job expectations affected their job adjustments in Huawei India. Accordingly, respondents stated extended work adjustment period, reduced morale, poor social integration, reduced efficiency and productivity, longer work time in the workplace for familiarisation purposes, the need for retraining, and generally a feeling of displeasure, discomfort, and dissatisfaction on the new work environment for some expatriates. Interviewee C, F, J and I cited problems of not being able to socialize with the locals, longer work days, while H experienced a lowered productivity. On the other hand, interviewee A, B, D, E and H were so dissatisfied and demotivated in their respective roles as expressed by interviewee B “It took me some time to adjust to these new expectations around (3 months) and although I am now used to the new environment, I would always prefer to work in my country where the conditions are more favorable”. Interestingly, interviewee G did not experience significant impact.
4.2.4 Objective 4: To explore the impact of role discretion on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment in Huawei India
Theme 1: The extent of authority and decision-making given to expatriates in their work in Huawei India
Q10 specifically asked interviewees to state the extent at which they exhibit their authority and the decision-making at their work as expatriates in Huawei India. Accordingly, most of the interviewees, B, C, G, H and I pointed out that their company procedures required them to follow the laid down guidelines and procedures when executing their duties. This implies that the expatriates had limited authority and decision making abilities on matters pertaining to their roles as expressed by interviewee C “Let me say that in our company, you have to work according to the laid down procedures and policies. Since the company is a top down hierarchy, important decisions have to be made and agreed at the top and those at the junior level implement them. So for me, there is need for the company to improve the level of autonomy on personnel as well as enable them make their own decisions”. However, among the ten interviewees, five of them, A, D, F, J,and E had different view, claiming that they had jurisdiction and authority to decide on how they performed their roles as articulated by respondent A “Our company has given us jurisdiction and authority to make decisions at our workplace as long as our decisions are in line with the overall objectives and lead to efficient production and management. The company trusts us as experts and that is why they send us to these foreign locations. At many a time, we are asked to provide guidance on some issues or tasks as well as implementation of some specific strategies”.
Theme 2: the impact of role discretion on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment in Huawei India
In Q11, it required interviewees to state how their authority and the decision-making abilities at their respective work as expatriates impact their work adjustment in Huawei India. Accordingly, interviewees cited lack of freedom to choose where best to live, lack of autonomy to come along with family thus causing family friction, and lack of authority to employ other strategies or techniques not approved by the management. Interviewees A and H, I and D stated that having authority has had a positive impact on their work adjustments. On the other hand, interviewees B, C, D, F, and J claimed limitations on making otherwise personal and job related decisions, taking longer in adapting to the new environment. Interview F puts this clear “On a personal level, the lack of authority and decision making ability affects the timeline in which one will be able to fully adjust to the new environment. Take this, if you are allowed to make assessment of the new work environment and jot down things you need to learn on, then you can do these immediately and you will be going smoothly within a few days. However, if you will have to wait for the management to show you what you are supposed to learn, they may not understand all your needs and hence; you will take longer to learn some things”. Interestingly, interviewee E did not see much impact on the difference or impact of authority with his current role.
In summary, findings reveal that a high number of Chinese expatriates find it hard to adjust in India due to cultural differences. In this regard, Chinese expatriates in India are expected to maintain a balance on their work performance both at the group level and individual level in order to minimise organisatioal conflicts. However, a signicant number of expatriates stated that they were satisfied living in India. Such people could have seen possible rewards in future regardless of the challenges they face. It is also clear that the skills, competencies, experience and general capability of undertaking specific tasks are some of the crucial requirements for foreign expatriates. Similarly, Kawai and Mohr (2015) maintain that an expatriate is required to understand the contradictory signals, maintain the important ones, and then behave accordingly. Further, a majority of Chinese expatriates are aware of the outcome of their respective roles owing to the targets, guidelines, processes and goals that they are expected to achieve through specific strategies. According to Taghavi (2015), the role expectations provide insight into the origin of the business activities involved along with the consequences of the activities. These three factors should be well understood by any employee to enable them to do their work as they are required to. It is also noted that expatriates understanding of position requirements had a significant level of impact on their work-adjustment. Taghavi, (2015) supports this notion by articulating that a clear definition of their job requirements by multinationals and the subsequent understanding of expatriates of these requirements in the global position is a good of way and a means of helping them adjust to their new jobs more easily.
This research also finds prevalence on the differences between past and new roles for Chinese experts. This is attributed to the new environment with new regulations, new culture, new people with their own customs and way of life, and new work requirements. However, the expatriates’ adaptability to the new work arena is contributed to their understanding of the required skills, knowledge, role, culture and system of which many were found to be good at. Similarly, Kawai and Mohr (2014) observed that the transfer of employees to international branches can lead to a disruption in the employees’ routines and patterns. The research also makes it clear that the skills and knowledge required in the former work environment may differ significantly in a new work environment. This raises the need for a training and reorientation programs for expatriates posted in the new work environment. Nonetheless, the company appears to be cognizant on the need for training and developing its expatriates posted in the new work environment to make them familiar with the new environment as expressed by interviewee. Erogul and Rahman (2017) further claim that a high level of role novelty implies that the skills, methods, and tasks needed for the expatriates’ performance may be difficult for them to understand.
Chapter 5 Conclusion & Recommendations
5.1 Summary of Findings
5.1.1 The impact of role clarity on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment in Huawei India
Findings from the research confirm those of earlier studies by articulating that role clarity harbors a significant level of impact on Chinese expatriates work adjustment in India. Accordingly, these expatriates require the necessary skills, knowledge, and experience to be able to succeed in their specific roles and profession in the new country. There is also the need to be adept at the policies, goals, and vision and mission of the company so that he or she works in line with them. While those who understand the required skills, knowledge, culture, people and personality traits find it easier to adapt and adjust to the new workstation, those with little understanding of such find the going to be tough, often requiring some time to train and familiarize on the same. Taghavi, 2015) supports this notion by articulating that a clear definition of their job requirements by multinationals and the subsequent understanding of expatriates of these requirements in the global position is a good way and a means of helping them adjust to their new jobs more easily. However, this research builds upon previous literature by postulating that personality traits, ability to adapt to new environments, sociability, ability to learn new things quickly, and being friendly to different climates are as being crucial for expatriate’s success in a foreign work environment.
5.1.2 The impact of role novelty on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment in Huawei India
Concerning role novelty, this research further confirms the previous ones by articulating that this variable carries a significant level of impact on Chinese expatriates work adjustment in Huawei India. In this regard, the expatriates’ adaptability to the new work arena is contributed to their understanding of the required skills, knowledge, role, culture and system of which many were found to be good at. The company (Huawei) is also cognizant of this need and thus endeavours to initiate training, development and orientation programs on its expatriates in order to familiarize them with the dynamics of the new environment. The expatriates are also supposed to augment their understanding on these aspects through independent research and practical experience. Furthermore, those with little understanding of these aspects take longer to adjust compared with those with a higher understanding. Lastly, the differences between the experts past role with the new role had a significant level of impact to their adjustment; mostly requiring these personnel to take time in reorienting themselves and in the process, lower efficiency, production and even morale. These findings are similar with those established by Kawai and Mohr (2014) who equally noted that the transfer of employees to international branches can lead to a disruption in the employees’ routines and patterns. These disruptions affect not only their jobs but also their private lives. The disruptions lead to a burden of change and novelty. However, the current research builds upon previous literature by emphasizing the need for training, research and orientation programs to minimize the possible conflicts.
5.1.3 The impact of role conflict on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment in Huawei India
Regarding the impact of role conflict on Chinese expatriates work adjustment in Huawei India, this study has reinforced the findings of previous literature that it plays a significant role in the expatriates work adjustment in India. Among the conflicts include higher expectations for Chinese expatriates, longer work hours, social incompatibility with the locals, higher fees for international students, low regard for women workers, new work policies and regulations, and poor work-life balance. Consequently, the impact to work adjustment is delayed adjustments, inefficiency on the part of expatriates, conflict with Indian colleagues, and reduced morale on the job leading to lower productivity and efficiency, and a general dissatisfaction on working and living in India for some expatriates. These findings align with those of Furusawa & Brewster (2016) who noted that, role conflict prohibits the adjustment of the expatriate to the job. However, this finding is different from what Beliasa, et al. (2015) found. According to these authors, role conflict is associated with some positive effects whereby; expatriates who experience conflict are likely to develop a sense of openness, increase their flexibility, and find more sources of data to rely on. Furthermore, the expatriates also noted that these expatriates may also develop effective and practical skills as a means to adjust to the challenges they face at work due to role conflict.
5.1.4 The impact of role discretion on Chinese expatriates’ work adjustment in Huawei India
According to the finding of this research, it is noted that the Chinese expatriates’ authority and decision making abilities in India is quite limited. Instead, they are supposed to adhere to certain regulations, policies, procedures and guidelines while executing their duties. However, there are some expatriates who were given such jurisdiction, especially those in the higher managerial hierarchy and those with extensive years of experience. Beliasa, et al (2015) agrees with these findings by stating that role discretion and freedom is important as it enables expatriates to produce positive outcomes in their jobs. However, the finding of the current study contradicts those of Wangrow, et al. (2014) who established that discretion interferes with the expatriates’ work. According to these authors, this is because it may be a constraint to their colleagues, making them difficult to work together.
5.2 Discussion of the Findings
From the results of this research, it is clear that the skills, competencies, experience and general capability of undertaking specific tasks are some of the crucial requirements for foreign expatriates. However, it is also true that personality traits, understanding of the foreign culture and people as well as the ability to adapt are critical for effective execution of the specified roles. If the same skills, experience and competency can be found among the local staff, then there would be no need to having to bring expatriates from China to India. Instead, you could just use the locally available ones for a reduced cost. Still, the person must be able to adapt to the local climate. In addition to these is the necessary documents including visa, passports, and work permits. According to Kawai and Mohr (2015), an expatriate is required to understand the contradictory signals, maintain the important ones, and then behave accordingly. Similarly, Taghavi (2015), state that the activities, consequences, and expectations of a role are of great significance in the description of the business activities. Therefore, expatriates need to comprehend what is expected of them in the new work environment before actually arriving at the new destination.
This study also notes that the expatriates are aware of the outcome of their respective roles owing to the targets, guidelines, processes and goals that they are expected to achieve through specific strategies. Furthermore, most of these expatriates have extensive experiences and thus are aware of what their strategies and actions would lead to. According to Taghavi (2015) the activities, consequences, and expectations of a role are of great significance in the description of the business activities. The activities involved in a certain role express the most important business activity of that role. Furthermore, the consequences and expectations of a role provide contextual information that can be used in the evaluation of the activities of the role.
It is noted through this study that expatriates understanding of position requirements had a significant level of impact on their work-adjustment. While those who understand the required skills, knowledge, culture, people and personality traits find it easier to adapt and adjust to the new workstation, those with little understanding of such find the going to be tough, often requiring some time to train and familiarize on the same. Arguably, if an expatriate does not understand the relevant knowledge/skills and personality traits required in executing responsibilities in the new location, then he or she may find difficulty adjusting to the new location owing to lack of competency. On the other hand, an understanding on the required skills, culture and traits will give the respective personnel a competency to adjust and work effectively in the new location. In this regard, there is certainly the need for expatriates to take some time in learning the new environment, culture, people as well as the need to retrain for the new roles in the new region. It is also clear that if an expatriate does not understand the relevant knowledge/skills and personality traits required in executing responsibilities in the new location, then he or she may find difficulty adjusting to the new location owing to lack of competency. Those who don’t understand will have to take a longer time in retraining, cultural orientation, understanding of organizational culture, and also learning about the new environment. Taghavi, (2015) supports this notion by articulating that a clear definition of their job requirements by multinationals and the subsequent understanding of expatriates of these requirements in the global position is a good of way and a means of helping them adjust to their new jobs more easily.
This research also finds prevalence on the differences between past and new roles for Chinese experts. This is attributed to the new environment with new regulations, new culture, new people with their own customs and way of life, and new work requirements. However, the expatriates’ adaptability to the new work arena is contributed to their understanding of the required skills, knowledge, role, culture and system of which many were found to be good at. Similarly, Kawai and Mohr (2014) observed that the transfer of employees to international branches can lead to a disruption in the employees’ routines and patterns. These disruptions affect not only their jobs but also their private lives. The disruptions lead to a burden of change and novelty.
This research also makes it clear that the skills and knowledge required in the former work environment may differ significantly in a new work environment. This raises the need for a training and reorientation programs for expatriates posted in the new work environment. Nonetheless, the company appears to be cognizant on the need for training and developing its expatriates posted in the new work environment to make them familiar with the new environment as expressed by interviewee. Erogul and Rahman (2017) further claim that a high level of role novelty implies that the skills, methods, and tasks needed for the expatriates’ performance may be difficult for them to understand. The difficulty faced by the expatriates as a result of role novelty can lead to stress, which, in turn, has a prospect of leading to decline in their performance.
It is also clear that the differences between the expert’s past role with the new role had a significant level of impact to their adjustment; mostly requiring these personnel to take time in reorienting themselves and in the process, lower efficiency, production and even morale. Furthermore, the issues to do with culture shock, different behaviours, and lifestyle and work routines required these expatriates to take some time in training and re-orienting themselves to the new work environment. Accordingly, the expatriates’ past roles may change with the new role in the sense that the work routines or even the position that he or she used to be may not be similar with the current one. Again, the new work environment could be having a new way of operation, a new company culture and organisational behaviour and the likes. This may be attributed to the need for the company to adapt to the culture and system of the local environment rather than that of the home country. Yueh and Alfiyatul (2015) argue that when an expatriate feels as though their job is uncertain and unpredictable, it may be hard for them to comprehend the behaviour required in the different situations they face, which can also affect their relationships with other members of the organisation. Similarly, Ben et al (2016) observes that when expatriates experience a high level of role novelty, they face ambiguity at work and often get involved in conflicts. In addition, role novelty causes the expatriate to get overwhelmed with work and develop a negative attitude towards the host.
This research has also identified a number of role conflicts for Chinese expatriates in India. They include higher expectations for Chinese expatriates, longer work hours, social incompatibility with the locals, higher fees for international students, low regard for women workers, new work policies and regulations, and poor work-life balance. Consequently, the impact to work adjustment is delayed adjustments, inefficiency on the part of expatriates, conflict with Indian colleagues, and reduced morale on the job leading to lower productivity and efficiency, and a general dissatisfaction on working and living in India for some expatriates. These findings align with those of Furusawa and Brewster (2016) who noted that, role conflict prohibits the adjustment of the expatriate to the job. The strain and stress brought about by role conflict cause a reduction in the expatriates’ motivation. The strain faced by expatriates is caused by the stress to which they are exposed, which has a negative impact on their emotions.
It is evident from the results that the role conflict and incompatibilities have a significant level of impact on the expertise job adjustment. Again, these professionals have to take some time in learning the new environment, as well as the new culture before they are fully acquainted with the new work environment. Consequently, a majority of expatriates have to take some time before they adapt to the system and learn the new environment. They are also those who may not be comfortable with the climate of the new environment and as such, may end up developing health complications. This is the same thing with the culture and behaviour of people in the new foreign country which may not always be pleasing to some expatriates. On his part, Conant, 2017) agrees that role conflict also affects the self-efficacy of the expatriate. This is because work environments that expose expatriates to role conflict cause them to doubt their ability. Furthermore, role conflict also reduces the role-based efficacy of expatriates. The low efficacy levels are caused by the lack of comfort with the working environment in which the expatriates conduct their tasks. However, Beliasa, et al. (2015) argues that role conflict is associated with some positive effects whereby; expatriates who experience conflict are likely to develop a sense of openness, increase their flexibility, and find more sources of data to rely on. Furthermore, the expatriates also noted that these expatriates may also develop effective and practical skills as a means to adjust to the challenges they face at work due to role conflict. In addition, role conflict can encourage employees to work together to resolve it, thereby unifying them and enhancing the work adjustment of expatriates (Beliasa, et al., 2015).
It is also clear that having authority and decision-making abilities or not having it had a significant level of impact on work adjustment for expatriates. Those who had such an authority took a shorter timeline in adjusting to the new environment and they were able to make decisions that facilitated their work adjustment in a shorter period. On the contrary, those with little or no authority had to regularly seek direction from the management and mostly took longer to adjust because they cannot make decisions based on their evaluations. While this worked in curtailing unnecessary mistakes, it actually impaired innovation and discovery of new methods of operation which could be more efficient. What is more, the need to follow protocol is also time consuming while also demotivating the otherwise experienced employees. Beliasa, et al (2015) agrees with these findings by stating that role discretion and freedom is important as it enables expatriates to produce positive outcomes in their jobs. This freedom is an important contributor to the work adjustment of expatriates. However, Wangrow, et al. (2014) argues that role discretion interferes with the expatriates’ work. This is because it may be a constraint to their colleagues, making them difficult to work together. This could be the basis at which Huawei India restrains its expatriates from role discretion.
Recommendations on role clarity
This research found that a majority of Chinese expatriates were conversant with their respective position requirements in their new jobs. This facilitated their work-adjustment positively and to a greater extent. This understanding is largely contributed by the training, development, induction and orientation programs initiated by the Huawei India. Accordingly, the company should continue with such programs and ensure that before the expatriates are released to the new foreign country, they are first of all trained, and introduced to all that they will expect in the new country. These should not only entail the skills, knowledge and experience required in executing the responsibilities but also knowledge regarding the culture, the people and their behavior/etiquette, policies, regulations, climate, the general work environment and expectations of them as expatriates in the new company.
Recommendations on role novelty
According to the findings of this research, there exist differences between past and new roles for Chinese experts. Role novelty has also a significant impact on the expatriate’s work adjustment in Huawei India. This thus requires adequate preparation of the expatriates and extensive familiarization of what they expect in their new work station. If not well prepared, the expatriates can get demoralized, stressed out, and even inefficient in their respective roles. This call for the need for the company to adequately prepare the expatriates both physically and psychologically to enable them adapt to the new environment. Accordingly, a lot of support is required from the managers and colleagues of the expatriates for them to be well prepared of what is expected of them.
Recommendations on role conflict
As identified by this research, role conflict has a significant level of impact on the expatriates work adjustment. To avoid role conflicts, companies should endeavor to hire personnel from the local environment, unless it is quite necessary to bring in expatriates from India. In this regard, companies have the responsibility to ensure that the expatriates are conversant with the conflicts they should expect in their jobs, comprehend the contradictory signals well and know which signals to follow and which should not be followed. Again, these skills ought to be incorporated in the training, development and reorientation programs which should be carried out before the expatriate’s departure to the new location and after arriving to the new work station. These will facilitate their work-adjustment endeavours.
Recommendations on role discretion
This research established that a majority of Chinese expatriates had limited discretion on how they executed their roles. Instead, they were required to adhere to some guidelines, procedures and strategies to perform their roles. However, Sia and Appu (2015) advices that role discretion is one among the most significant work design dimension. It is also seen as entrepreneurship since it allows employees to come up with creative means to complete their tasks and make risky moves by executing their plans or ideas. It is a motivator for employees. Accordingly, Huawei need to accord its employees autonomy and discretion on how to execute their roles within the set down goals.
5.4 Research limitations and suggestions for future studies
One of the key limitations of this study is that it employs Huawei India as the case study. This means that the findings may not be generalized to other multinationals as the circumstances for Huawei India may be quite different with other multinationals in different parts of the world. Besides, the six interviewees in this study may not be sufficient enough to give a proper view owing to their small number. In this regard, future researchers should explore a diversity of multinational companies and opt to use a larger number of interviewees or respondents for a balanced view.
By completing this project, I have obtained essential skills in primary and secondary research. The experience I gained in this aspect is unprecedented since I managed to engage in a research which entails primary data collection and analysis on an individual basis. Although I mostly used qualitative research method, I was also able to learn about quantitative method and compared the advantages and disadvantages of each other to gauge the best and suitable one in a particular situation. As the author of this research, I gained practical experience of conducting a qualitative study and more the art of interviewing as a data collection method. I was also able to analyse the merits and demerits of alternative primary data collection methods including the use of questionnaires, observations, focus groups among others and hence; gained in-depth knowledge concerning the diversity of data collection methods.
On a professional level and in consideration of my future career as a HR manager, I have immensely gained from the research experience through improvement of time-management skills. In particular, the process of conducting this research entailed extensive planning and preparation for every phase of the study and that each of these phases was required to be done within specific time limits. In order to ensure that I am on time on project delivery, I had to avoid activities that were unnecessary during the research process. A careful planning and organisation were needed while daily plans had to be set so that specific proportions of the study have to be undertaken in a given day. Furthermore, there were provisions for off days during the course of the project so as to avoid burnout and pressure which could in one way or another affect the study outcome or management. I believe these skills will be necessary as a HR manager in future as I will be required to demonstrate careful planning and organisation of activities.
The anxiety which accompanied by visits in Huawei India especially the first lot of the interviewees appeared to indicate the impending challenges I was likely to face in the interviewing process. Nonetheless, this turned out to be a novel situation for me particularly in regard to the new environment and conducting out interviews, hence I motivated myself into proceeding with the mission. In general perspective, the interviews went on very smoothly as I went along. However, the learning curve appeared to be steep. Further, I tended to relax a little more with each interviewee as the research process was coming closer. However, a part from missing out on my rough sleeping as well as perusing through my social media accounts which is my lifestyle, I realised that I had also missed out on my family connections to some level. Despite my supposed progress and success, I think that I still need to learn more on work and project organisation as well as better time management aspects. I do belief that this will help me a great deal on management and avoiding some of the errors and mishaps that are likely to emerge not only on research projects but each type of work. I would also like to improve on language skills in English, as I faced challenges in communicating frequently with the interviewees. Ideally, English language skills are important especially in the international arena, and hence it is paramount to perfect it. Therefore, I plan to read more articles in English and also engage in online tutorials to gain more skills.
Lastly, if I were to be given another chance of writing a dissertation project, then I would put focus on exploring a wide range of literature and concentrate more on the data collection process. I will also opt to utilize a mixed method research to enable me obtain a more accurate outcome.
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