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The Life of Pre-Raphaelite Art Model Jane Burden Morris


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Much to a researcher’s disappointment, there is little-known information on the childhood years of Jane Burden Morris other than she was born in Oxford, England in 1839 to an impoverished working-class family, her father was a stable handler and mother was a laundress.

Most likely, family expected that when Jane became of age, she’d follow in the footsteps of so many other underprivileged young women like herself and take on work as a domestic servant. One would think that with her station in life, she’d no other hope. Jane had a gift of intelligence, and to her advantage, she would use every bit to reforge her life’s direction.

Jane Burden Morris: ‘Bruna Brunelleschi’ circa 1878.

Jane Burden Morris: ‘Bruna Brunelleschi’ circa 1878.

... a figure cut out of a missal—out of one of Rossetti’s or Hunt’s pictures—to say this gives but a faint idea of her because when such an image puts on flesh and blood, it is an apparition of fearful and wonderful intensity … On the wall was a large nearly full-length portrait of her by Rossetti, so strange and unreal that if you hadn’t seen her you’d pronounce it a distempered vision, but in fact an extremely good likeness.

— American Writer Henry James on Jane Burden Morris

Destiny in Oxford

A chance meeting occurred at Oxford’s Drury Lane Theatre where Jane, who in the company of her sister, came across Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Edward Burne-Jones. The two distinguished young men had spied on the young girls who were sitting in the audience gallery below.

The artist duo introduced themselves as artists who were working with textile designer William Morris on a mural for the famous art critic, John Ruskin. They also explained their search for an alternative model to pose for their future paintings.

Overwhelmed by her unconventional beauty, the two men begged for their opportunity to have this new goddess sit for them. Destiny would have it no other way - this was when Jane’s life would change forever.

Jane's Modeling Years

If you find yourself studying the brooding and pensive eyes of Jane Burden Morris, you might have a hard time deciphering the reason for the woman’s melancholic, almost soulful expression. The look of dull pang and wayward reverie was the inspiration needed for a masterpiece, and Jane personified all that was holy in the trained eyes of an artist who championed romanticism. Rossetti enlisted Jane to sit for him, inspiring him to create his vision of Queen Guinevere. It was during this time with Rosetti that Jane had fallen in love with the artist, yet to her desolation, he’d already betrothed himself to another art model, Elizabeth Siddal and already involved with Fanny Cornforth, yet another artist model who sat for him in the past. There has been speculation about two other art models, Annie Miller and Alexa Wilding, although the later woman of the two disproven about romantic involvement with Rossetti.

Jane met William Morris, a friend of Rossetti, with who she also agreed to sit for his painting, La Belle Iseult. During this time, Morris fell in love with Jane, and she married him despite her hesitancy and admission that she did not return his love. For Jane, this union was most likely a marriage of convenience, which allowed her to rise above her lower station in life and enter the upper echelon of society. Some would agree that it was a shrewd and calculating move, but given her newfound status, one could imagine how hard it would be to turn away from the ease and comfort of being an artist model.

Jane Burden Morris and May Morris circa 1865

Jane Burden Morris and May Morris circa 1865

A Turning Point at Kelmscott Manor

Jane continued to model for Rossetti. The time they spent together turned romantic after the death of his wife, Elizabeth Siddal. Some of Rossetti’s most significant works of art, such as the renowned Proserpine envisioned by his liaison with Jane, and because William Morris turned a blind eye to the relationship. One cannot say the reason for his resignation to this arrangement, maybe it was because he loved Jane, or his reverence for Rossetti.

Either way, it didn’t change the fact that in 1871 Morris and Rossetti took on a joint tenancy in the countryside at Kelmscott Manor and after that, William set sail for Iceland, leaving the two together. Hence, a passionate love affair ensued in his absence.

Kelmscott Manor - Oxfordshire, England 25 May 2016 Daderot

Kelmscott Manor - Oxfordshire, England 25 May 2016 Daderot

The Passion Dwindles

In the years that followed, Jane had improved her position in life despite her long-standing affair with Rossetti. During their relationship, she had received private teaching on every aspect of the role of a gentleman’s wife, becoming proficient in the romantic languages, learning classical music and excelling in the embroidery craft. As Jane moved higher on the social scale, her bearing seemed almost superior to those once considered her betters.

As for her relationship with Rossetti, she had distanced herself from him; her decision wasn’t because of their illicit affair but the sedatives he used to aid his bouts of insomnia. Jane loved him, but she could not abide by his choice to self-medicate with addictive drugs. Although they no longer shared an intimate relation, she remained in contact with him until a year before his death in 1882.

Two years later, Jane fell in love again while still married to Morris. Her second illicit affair begun with William Scawen Blunt, a political activist with whom she had met through a close friend. This relationship kindled immediate attraction and lasted for several years before his death in 1894. Two years later – Morris himself had suffered from the effects of gout, epilepsy and died from contracting Tuberculosis in 1896. Leaving Jane widowed and very much alone.

I cannot say that Rossetti’s presence was enlivening [in his later years]. My most representative recollection of him is of his sitting beside Mrs. Morris, who looked as if she had stepped out of any one of his pictures, both wrapped in a motionless silence as of a world where they would have no need of words. And silence, however poetically golden, was a sin in a poet whose voice in speech was so musical as his – hers I am sure I never heard

— R.E. Francillon, Mid-Victorian Memories

Morris's Final Years

Before her passing, Jane purchased Kelmscott Manor to leave behind for her daughters. She did not go back to visit the mansion that had given her so many years of memories, passionate love, pang, and sorrow.

Perhaps she did not need to revisit the past. Maybe somehow she made peace with all the incomplete fulfillment in her life. Jane died in her sleep on a cold winter morning in 1914 and buried in the cemetery at St. George’s church in Kelmscott.

Cited Sources & Works

  • R.E. Francillon. Mid-Victorian Memories p.172
  • Wendy Parkins. Jane Morris: The Burden of History (Edinburgh Critical Studies in Victorian Culture) 1st Edition
  • Stephanie Graham Pena. Jane Morris: An Enigmatic Muse
  • The Paris Review: Beauty Marks

© 2019 ziyena


Eric Dierker from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A. on May 26, 2019:

It has been a long time to think back on her. Perhaps '73. I think my sister pointed her out to me. Again not clear in my dotage but I think the Louvre.

Thank you, I just loved these lady conquerors of her centuries.

Excuse me for waxing on.