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The Amur Leopard

Linda is an amateur artist and photographer who loves to travel with her husband of 37 years.


The Amur Leopard- Endangered

Though they are the most critically endangered of all the big cats, not many people have even heard of the Amur Leopard.

There are only an estimated 30-35 of these gorgeous leopards living today in the wild.

They are beautiful animals that deserve to survive.

In this lens, you will learn about the Amur Leopard, share in this glimpse of an animal that will hopefully survive this threat of extinction.

It makes me sad to share with you that the above Amur Leopard (Photo by me, Linda Hoxie) is no longer with us. Her name was Nadia and she was a beautiful Amur Leopard housed at the Boise Zoo. She became very ill and they were not able to save her. Another loss of such an endangered species.

This page is dedicated to the beautiful Nadia!

What does the Amur Leopard look like - Physical characteristics of the Amur Leopard

Amur leopard photo by Linda Hoxie

Amur leopard photo by Linda Hoxie

The Amur Leopard is beautiful, with a pale cream coat, that is even lighter in the winter months, that is covered with rosettes that are far apart. They are think dark rings, black in color with solid circles in the center.

Well judge for yourself, are they not beautiful cats?

The length of the coat varies between one inch (2.5 centimeters) in the warm summer months to three inches (7.5 centimeters) in the cold winter months.

The males on the average weigh in between 70-105 lbs (32-48 kg), exceptionally large males can weight anywhere from 132-165 lbs (60-75 kg).

The females are smaller than the males at 55-94 lbs (25-43 kg).

Amur Leopard "Almost Extinct"- Big Cat TV

Where is their habitat

The Amur Leopards Habitat

The Amur leopard's past range extended throughout northeastern ("Manchurian") China, the southern part of Primorsky Krai in Russia and the Korean Peninsula.

During the 20th century, their range shrank dramatically. It is believed this is due to loss of their habitat, which is the temperate forests and to hunting.

Today, the Amur Leopard is critically endangered with only 27 to 35 cats remaining in Southwest Primorye.

Amur leopard crossing tree in nature reserve

Amur leopard crossing tree in nature reserve Kedrovaya Pad (Yury Shibnev)

Amur leopard crossing tree in nature reserve Kedrovaya Pad (Yury Shibnev)

Amur leopard crossing tree in nature reserve Kedrovaya Pad (Yury Shibnev)

Scroll to Continue

(Above Photo used with permission from ALTA Amur Leopard Conservation)

There are probably up to 10 animals scattered throughout the Chinese Jilin and Heilongjiang Provinces, with the majority of animals concentrated near the Russian border.

The Amur leopard probably went extinct in the wild in South Korea in the late 1960s, although some recent, unconfirmed reports suggest that a few leopards may remain in and around the demilitarized zone between North and South Korea.

Amur Leopard Conservation

Conservation of the Amur leopard -probably the rarest big cat on earth- by the Amur Leopard and Tiger Alliance (ALTA). View 10 minute video at

What do they eat

The primary diet of an Amur Leopard

The Amur Leopards are carnivores and therefore their diet consists mainly of meat.


Amur leopard After a meal

In the wild they feed on Roe deer, wild boar, sika deer, musk deer, badgers and hares

In the zoos they are fed a carnivore diet consisting of meat, bones, vitamins, and enrichment treats.

Below video is of an Amur Leopard eyeing some goats but he just can't reach them.

Lifespan and Reproduction of the Amur Leopard

Amur Leopard Cubs and how they come to exist

The average lifespan of a Amur Leopard in the wild is ten to fifteen years, in captivity up to 23 years.

The cats reach their sexual maturity at three years of age.

The breeding season in in the late winter months, usually around January or February. The gestation period for the mother is 90-105 days. So their cubs are usually born April through June.

Amur leopard cub

Amur leopard cub

Amur leopard cub

Amur leopard cub (Yury Shibnev)

(Photo used with permission from ALTA Amur Leopard Conservation)

They have two to four cubs in their litters with an average of two.

The Amur Leopard cubs open their eyes after ten days and are weaned within three months. The stay with their mother until they are around eighteen months to two years in age.

What do they do?

The behaviors of the Amur Leopard

The Amur Leopards once fully grown are solitary creatures.

They, much like any big cat, well like any cat period, they mark their territory with urine.

They hunt their prey swiftly, usually able to take it down with a few strides and a leap. They eat by themselves and will hide larger kills and return to finish them later.

Amur leopard at London Zoo

Amur leopard at London Zoo,

Amur leopard at London Zoo,

Amur leopard are great climbers

The Amur leopard is a great climber, they spend a lot of their time in the trees. So the temperate forest is very important to them.

They are also strong swimmers, and do not hesitate to enter the water.

They can leap twenty feet across and ten feet high.

Their territories are large, thirty square miles they will travel to find food over a period of time.

AMUR LEOPARD "Almost Extinct"- Big Cat TV

What threatens the Amur Leopards existence? - Threats the Amur Leopard faces.

The Amur Leopard faces all of the following threats:

  • Poaching of Amur leopards and their prey species, the deer they need to survive. The leopards are hunted for their fur, the deer for the meat.

    Since 2002 nine skins or carcasses of the leopard were found in Russia, and two in China.

    With the numbers of the animals only being thirty to thirty five animals, how long before these poachers wipe out their existence in the wild totally?

  • Loss of forest habitat due to forest fires.

    The local villagers start fires for many reason, the main reason it is said is to encourage the growth of ferns that are a very popular ingredient in Russian and Chinese dishes.

  • Negative impacts of inbreeding.

    Loss of genetic diversity in the small and isolated Amur leopard population may cause inbreeding depression (reduced numbers due to reduced reproduction and lifespan and increased vulnerability to diseases).

  • Development projects.

    Like so many endangered animals, the growth of the population on man, and the expansion of their industries so often intrude or destroy the habitat of the animals.

  • Lack of political commitment to conservation.

    The Amur Leopard, does not have the political support that it so desperately needs to be protected.

Amur Leopard by Linda Hoxie

Amur Leopard by Linda Hoxie

What kind of conservation efforts are in place today?

Conservation efforts to save the Amur Leopard.

What kind of conservation efforts are in place today? - Conservation efforts to save the Amur Leopard.

The Amur Leopard standing at the Boise Zoon

The Amur Leopard standing at the Boise Zoon

Photographer Linda Hoxie (Boise Zoo - Idaho) all rights reserved.

Photographer Linda Hoxie (Boise Zoo - Idaho) all rights reserved.

Significant progress in conserving Amur leopards and tigers has been made over the last ten years.

A coalition of 13 international and Russian NGOs have pooled resources by creating ALTA(the Amur Leopard and Tiger Alliance).

ALTA is an informal coalition of funding and implementing agencies working together for the conservation of Amur tigers and leopards. ALTA members have been working together for many years in developing, financing and implementing conservation projects in Russia and China.

The key implementing agencies in ALTA are WCS Russia and the Vladivostok-based Phoenix Fund,

with other partners involved in Russia to a lesser degree;

The Moscow Zoo,

The Zoological Society of London (ZSL),

Wildlife Vets International,

Those providing relevant funding;

David Shepherd Wildlife Foundation,

Wildlife Alliance,

and the Minnesota zoos.

ALTA's conservation approach is based on good science, thorough threat analysis and long-term commitment. Our projects are carefully monitored and evaluated. ALTA members co-operate closely with the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Russian NGOs and authorities and local institutes of the Russian Academy of Science.

The European/Russian zoo breeding programme (EEP - European Endangered species Programme) for Amur leopards is coordinated jointly by ALTA partners ZSL and Moscow Zoo, and the North American programme (PMP - Population Management Programme) by ALTA partner Minnesota Zoo

Amur Leopard at the Boise Zoo

Amur Leopard at the Boise Zoo

How you can help?

So you would like to help save the Amur Leopard, but not sure how?

You can help the cause of the Amur Leopard in many different ways.

1. Donate money or time to the cause. You can visit any of the links provided above and they will tell you how you can donate money or time to help in the efforts to save the Amur Leopard.

2. Spread the word. Let's not let these animals dwindle away to extinction in the wild, just because no one really hears much about them. Help bring attention to their plight by spreading the word about them.

3. Help save the forest vital to their habitat. You can do this by supporting the people that are working to save their habitat in any way you can.

4. Support lobbying for improved conservation policies and regulations.

Don't let their Footprints fade away!

Amur Leopard Population Graph - Estimates from 2000 to 2007

Amur Leopard Population graph from 2000 to 2007

Amur Leopard Population graph from 2000 to 2007

Thank you for stopping by and learning about the beautiful Amur Leopard.

Please leave your mark here,

Thanks for your support,


Thank you for stopping by.

Snakesmum on January 21, 2014:

Hadn't heard of this leopard sub-species before; they are beautiful. Hopefully, they can be saved.

Merry Citarella from Oregon's Southern Coast on January 19, 2014:

Amazing animal! Great lens. Thanks for sharing it.

joanzueway on January 16, 2014:

Thank you for this wonderful lens

TanoCalvenoa on January 02, 2014:

Amazing lens about a super rare animal. Big cats are my favorite animals, and the only other time I've heard anything about this specific cat is on a nature video.

tonyleather on December 22, 2013:

WOW!! What a truly wonderful lens about an incredible cat! Thanks so much!

qikey1 lm on September 05, 2013:

Thank you for creating this lens to raise awareness about these little known cats. :) Sad :(

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on April 12, 2013:

@donnetted: Thank you Donnette, for stopping by and for taking the time to leave a comment, much appreciated!

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on April 12, 2013:

@Virginia Allain: Thank you, I do too!

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on April 12, 2013:

@SilmarwenLinwelin: Me too!

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on April 12, 2013:

@flicker lm: Thank you!

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on April 12, 2013:

@anonymous: Thank you Vanessa, good luck on your studies. :)

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on April 12, 2013:

@supersiva: They are beautiful! Cheetahs may be the fastest though. :)

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on April 12, 2013:

@octopen: That they are! :)

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on April 12, 2013:

@anonymous: It is sad, but what makes me so happy is that so many people care enough about those endangered species to work on conservation efforts to bring their numbers back up. We have some amazing and caring people in this world, don't we? :)

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on April 12, 2013:

@anonymous: I have no way to let you know, but the best I could do was create a graft with the three years of counts of the Amur Leopard they had on the redlist page. I posted it above this. I hope you get this or found something to us. Best of luck to you in your studies! Linda

anonymous on April 11, 2013:

please can sombody give me a link to a graph about their population decrease (homework crisis!!!!!!!)

anonymous on February 19, 2013:

Sad but shit happens. sometimes

octopen on September 04, 2012:

I love leopards, seeing them in the wild is magnificent! THEY are the queen of the beasts!

supersiva on June 30, 2012:

Leopards are the most beautiful and the fastest living cats in the planet

anonymous on June 05, 2012:

i love the idea of what has to be done i agree i was actually researching about that and this really helped me they are sooo beautiful nice work

flicker lm on April 28, 2012:

What a beautiful creature! Nicely done.

SilmarwenLinwelin on October 28, 2011:

I wish all those wild animals could live safely in their habitat.

Virginia Allain from Central Florida on September 11, 2011:

You've created a beautiful tribute to this beautiful animal. I hope efforts to preserve it are successful.

Donnette Davis from South Africa on September 05, 2011:

It truly is a magnificent creature. And that little cub... oh so terribly gorgeous! What a beautiful lens.

pickled_cabbage on September 04, 2011:

Stunning (like all leopards, I guess) - a wonderful lens - I love these animals and more needs to be done to save them, I agree.

Jeanette from Australia on August 14, 2011:

What a beautiful creature and that cub is adorable! This lens has been blessed and added to my animal alphabet lens.

Frankie Kangas from California on July 31, 2011:

Stopped by again to give you an Angel Blessing for doing such a great job on this lens. These cats are so beautiful and it is disturbing that they can become extinct. Bear hugs, Frankie

anonymous on July 13, 2011:

The Amur Leopard is well worth out efforts to save from extinction and sad to think this world is getting too small for us all the coexist. What a beautiful animal and presentation!

inkserotica on May 28, 2011:

A fluttering of ghostly angel wings have passed on by and sent blessings your way :)

pheonix76 from WNY on April 26, 2011:

Excellent lens with a sad story. Lets hope this one has a happy ending! I am featuring your lens on my extinct birds page.

anonymous on April 25, 2011:

@ArtByLinda: Amen!!

Andy-Po on April 22, 2011:

This is an excellent lens about an important subject close to my heart. I love watching big cats in the wild, especially leopards and while so many are endangered this leopard is so close to extinction it really demonstrates the terrible problem that large predators have in the modern world. I do hope it can survive in the wild.

CathyLou LM on April 06, 2011:

@CathyLou LM: Revisited to say: Lensrolled to my Clouded Leopard lens. :)

CathyLou LM on April 04, 2011:

What a beautiful leopard. Its very sad that so many animals are on the brink of extinction.

Cynthia Sylvestermouse from United States on April 01, 2011:

I am returning today to leave my April Blessings on this fabulous lens! Yes, I selected animals for my April 1 neighborhood. Imagine that! LOL

grafixforacause on March 27, 2011:

A beautiful creature, and one to cherish! Thanks for featuring them.

Mistalina on March 24, 2011:

Thank you for featuring this wonderful creature.

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on March 11, 2011:

@anonymous: The Amur leopard feeds mainly on hares, roe deer, and sika deer. I am sure they help keep those populations in check. But in my mind it would be like looking at a sunset or a rainbow and asking what do they contribute to the environment, they add great beauty to our world. We learn from each animal as we discover their habits and just the enjoyment of watching them adds tremendously to our world.

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on March 11, 2011:

@anonymous: Their fur would cost someone prison time I am sure! But I don't know what they sold them for, sorry.

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on March 11, 2011:

@River88: And may God bless you too, thank you!

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on March 11, 2011:

@David Dove: That they are.

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on March 11, 2011:

@JakTraks: You know it wasn't until I watched a show about them on the discovery channel that I discovered just how endangered they word and decided to help spread the word.

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on March 11, 2011:

@WildFacesGallery: Thank you, if you ever do that painting you must share it with us on a webpage, we would love to see it. With your talent I am sure it will be amazing!

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on March 11, 2011:

@norma-holt: Thank you so much, I share your heartbreak!

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on March 11, 2011:

@anonymous: The Secrets of Squidoo, may help with some great tips from the Giant Squids. Best of luck to you!

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on March 11, 2011:

@Sylvestermouse: I know, they just have to survive, such graceful beauty!

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on March 11, 2011:

@Spook LM: Thank you so much for your kind words and your blessing!

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on March 11, 2011:

@RinchenChodron: Thank you for being here too! L(

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on March 11, 2011:

@indigoj: I agree, it is sad. Thank you so much, I appreciate you!

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on March 11, 2011:

@anonymous: You are very welcome, I am glad it was helpful! Thank you so much for helping to spread the word about these beautiful animals!

anonymous on March 11, 2011:

can anyone please tell me how they have a positive impact on the environment?

i need the information for a school poster, please!

anonymous on February 02, 2011:

Hey, does anyone know how much that their fur costs? I'm writing an essay on society's lack of respect for species, such as the amur leopard. . .Aren't they GORGEOUS???

River88 on January 27, 2011:

This is a wonderful lens. I am involved with many animal rescue organizations and will be glad to help spread the word. I have also lens rolled to a few of my lenses that relate. God bless you.

David Dove on January 26, 2011:

Just beautiful

Jacqueline Marshall from Chicago area on November 24, 2010:

Beautiful cats and beautiful lens. I didn't realize how endangered they are.

Mona from Iowa on November 14, 2010:

I love leopards and I've taken some excellent photos of an amur male that some day I will paint. :) This is a beautiful lens.

norma-holt on November 14, 2010:

Thank you for bringing this subject up. My heart breaks at the loss of animal species and the massive rate of destruction of habitat for human use. We are out of control in so many ways and overpopulation is very expensive. We will never get animals like this back. Featured on Save Planet Earth and also on Overpopulation, Religious Dogma, Politics and the Big Squeeze .

anonymous on November 09, 2010:

I wonder how do you add the colorful text with border? where can i learn?s

Cynthia Sylvestermouse from United States on October 29, 2010:

It always breaks my heart to see endangered animals. This one is especially beautiful and the photos are awesome!

Spook LM on September 26, 2010:

How dreadfully sad and couldn't agree with you more. I trust you won't mind if I lensroll this? Beautiful photos. Blessed by an Angel.

RinchenChodron on September 16, 2010:

I love that you are doing something positive to save these lovely beasts! Thanks

Indigo Janson from UK on September 14, 2010:

It is so sad that so many animals are on the brink of extinction, including so many big cats and wildcats. The Amur Leopard is indeed a beautiful animal and I hope it can be saved somehow, along with all the other creatures who need our help. Raising awareness is an important step. I would bless this if I still had the angel wings. Lensrolling to my Scottish Wildcat.

anonymous on June 10, 2010:

thank you for writing all this info about the amur leopard it really helped me for my project .........i never knew about this animal now i know a lot and i will spread the word to help them. ;)

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on February 05, 2010:

@natureplanet: There are presently around 300 Amur leopards in the European and North-American zoo breeding programs.

natureplanet on December 19, 2009:

beautiful animals. Are there some pairs in zoos to keep the species going?

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on November 12, 2009:

[in reply to World-Wanderer]

I think it is wonderful that you found this in a search and hope it was helpful for your degree.

Actually, the posters are from my affiliate and they had no amur leopards, so I did a search for leopards. But I am hoping I have them all correctly labeled properly as "leopard" or "amur leopard" as the amur leopard photos are from the alta website.

Thank you so much,


World-Wanderer on November 12, 2009:

Well i didn't expect a squidoo page to come up while researching for my degree :) hope my lenses become this popular.

Not all your pictures are amur leopards though, I hope you knew this already :) just trying to be helpful

Holley Web on October 17, 2009:

What a beautiful animal! You have truly done it justice by getting the word out about it's need for help. Big Cat Rescue is one of my favorite charities. You are blessing the animals with your compassion and I am blessing this lens. Thank you!

Frankie Kangas from California on August 03, 2009:

Thanks Linda for highlighting these endangered big cats. I have featured the lens on the Big Cat Rescue ( lens on Squidoo. Thank you for doing such a terrific job too. Bear hugs, Frankster aka Bearmeister aka Cat-Woman

anonymous on June 22, 2009:

thnx 4 all the help this website is so great......

it really helped me research everything

about amur leopards.........

with all my <3 thnx soooo much

roamingrosie on June 19, 2009:

What beautiful cats! I especially love the baby photos from the zoos around the world - sooo cute!

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on June 18, 2009:

[in reply to jamie =] ]

jay and emy, It makes me so happy that you both love this site! (((hugs)))

anonymous on June 18, 2009:

thx 4 ya site again it really help me.........

i luv this site and so does my friend emilee

luv jay & emy x x x !!!!!

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on June 10, 2009:

jamie, you are so very welcome, thank you for making it all worthwhile! :-) [in reply to jamie =]]

anonymous on June 03, 2009:

Excellent photos. I love this lens. 5*

anonymous on May 28, 2009:

thanks your site eally helps me

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on May 23, 2009:

You are so very welcome, thanks for taking the time to leave a note! [in reply to Aryam]

anonymous on May 23, 2009:

all the info i needed for my science project was here. thanks for making making this.

Linda Hoxie (author) from Idaho on April 30, 2009:

[in reply to kahla]

Collectively, ALTA members have developed a comprehensive conservation programme for the Amur leopard’s range in Russia and NE China that includes:



Compensation for livestock killed by tigers and leopards

A comprehensive education and public awareness programme

Population monitoring, (Snow-track counts and camera trapping)

Ecological and biomedical research

Support for protected areas and hunting leases

Lobbying for improved conservation policies and regulations

Amur leopard conservation in China

The Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF) is also a major contributor. WWF’s main activities are;

1. Protected area network development

2. Fire-control and sustainable forest management

3. Education and awareness

4. Anti-poaching

5. Ungulate Recovery Program.

6. Population monitoring

I hope this helps. :-) Linda

anonymous on April 29, 2009:

wow this is a great website and really helped me with my research.

I was wondering if anyone knows if what organisations are doing for the amur leopard is working?

Like how effective are these strategies ...

Also, how to know if what is being done is making a difference,

This would really help me with my study if anyone knows the answers :)

QuantumTiger on March 02, 2009:

Great lens and some fabulous photos

sittonbull on February 27, 2009:

Of the cats that I've actually seen in the bush... the leopard is my favorite! You've done a beautiful job here... both bringing needed attention to an endangered species and illustrating and educating all about the species itself. Jan 08 I went on a safari just outside of Krueger National Park in S.Africa where we saw everything you could see in a zoo... in it's natural habitat! We spent a great deal of time watching the numerous leopards in Simbambili Preserve and taking pictures from an open land rover. Although we were cautioned not to extend our limbs outside of the rover, we were almost close enough to touch them. You have helped convince me to do a lens on that trip with your outstanding lens here... and helped show me how to make it with your instructional lenses! You Rock...Thank You! Stars (oh yes 5), and favored.

julieannbrady on December 18, 2008:

The Amur leopard is a beautiful animal. You've included some wonderful pictures. I didn't realize that any species of leopard was endangered!

Evelyn Saenz from Royalton on November 18, 2008:

Leopards are beautiful animals.

sisterra on November 15, 2008:

What a wonderful lens!! The photos are amazing.

JasonE on October 29, 2008:

These are beautiful animals. It is a shame that the activities of humans have endangered them.

JasonE on October 29, 2008:

These are beautiful animals. It is a shame that the activities of humans have endangered them.

The Homeopath on October 27, 2008:

Such sweet faces! I pray that they will be around for my grandchildren.

WhitU4ever on October 27, 2008:

What a beautiful cat!

dahlia369 on October 27, 2008:

Graceful cats, always pleasure to observe... I hope we find the way to preserve them. 5*****

ChristiannaGarrett-Martin on October 26, 2008:

This is a beautiful lens! Stumbled and Favourite.

Lovely photographs and lay-out.


AslanBooks on October 26, 2008:

Very nice lens.

Mihaela Vrban from Croatia on October 25, 2008:

Wonderful lens and even more wonderful pictures!

Allan R. Wallace from Wherever Human Rights Reign on October 24, 2008:

Very interesting. Just how successful is the captive breeding program, and are there plans to release back into the wild?

dreamsgate lm on October 24, 2008:

How sad that there are so few left. They are such beautiful creatures.

dandepp on October 23, 2008:

Wow - these guys look awesome! I went on safari in the masai mara and saw a few leopards. Thanks for making such a cool lens!

aquariann on October 23, 2008:

Beautiful animal! How sad that there are so few left in the world. Wonderful lens with great information.

Susanna Duffy from Melbourne Australia on October 23, 2008:

What wonderful beautiful creatures and less than 40 left? How shameful, 5* for bringing this to our attention

Robyco on October 22, 2008:

Great Lens, Great Pics. 5*'s.

Robyco on October 22, 2008:

Great Lens, Great Pics. 5*'s.

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