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The European Robin: Britain's National Bird

The European Robin

The European robin also called redbreast is 5 inches from beak to tail top, around 2-4 inches high and is found all over the UK.

The European robin also called redbreast is 5 inches from beak to tail top, around 2-4 inches high and is found all over the UK.


The robin enjoys a popularity with man unrivalled by any other species. A familiar visitor at the bird table in winter and constant gardening companion, even nesting in the tool shed, it is a year-round bird. This close association with man is a special feature of the robin’s relationship with the British. Robins of exactly the same species nest over most of Europe, but a tendency on the continent to shoot and eat small birds has made robins there generally shy and retiring woodland birds.

The bird’s popularity in Britain has built up over the years and legends about bad luck being incurred by anyone harming a robin dates back to the 16th century. A Christian link has been attached to the legend because the robin’s red breast was supposedly stained by Christ’s crown of thorns. This is why the robin features prominently on the earliest Christmas cards.

Robin Nest And Eggs

Egg And Nest Information

Robins lay five or six half inch long eggs which are incubated for two weeks. Eggs generally have a whitish background and orange brown freckles.

Nests vary in size. They're made of dead leaves, grass, moss and hairs; with a few feathers used as lining.

More On The European Robin And Other British Birds

Pairing And Nesting

The adults get together as pairs in early January. As they look exactly alike, the sexes can only recognise each other by display and posture. An unmated male singing loudly in his territory will, at first, behave aggressively to any intruding robin. If the intruder is male it either retreats or tries to oust the occupier. If the new bird is a female seeking a mate, she persists in approaching the resident male, apparently unimpressed by his threats. Over a period of some hours, sometimes as much as two days, the bond between the two is built up so that they finally accept each other.

In many species this pair bonding is directly followed by nest building and egg-laying. With the robin, pairing is accomplished weeks or even months before any nesting attempt is made. During this time the birds occupy the same territory and recognise each other as mates but do not pay much attention to each other. As the weather improves the hen bird starts to build her nest, using moss and dead leaves and lining it with hair. In the natural state she may choose a rocky crevice or hollow of a tree, most often, a bank or an ivy-covered tree- usually well concealed and difficult to find.

However some robins select the most unlikely sites. One nest was found in a chest of drawers in a tool shed. The drawer was half closed and the nest at the back was only discovered when the drawer was opened.

When she begins to build the nest the female also starts to receive food from the male. This so called ‘courtship feeding’ was initially thought to be a ritual designed to reinforce the pair-bond between male and female. In fact it’s an important source of food for the female- one that she almost completely relies upon during incubation.

The clutch of white eggs with pale reddish freckling is laid, one egg each day, and the complete clutch is generally five to six eggs, although up to nine have been recorded. The incubating female loses the feathers from her breast and belly and the blood vessels just under the skin enlarge greatly. The bare skin and increased blood supply allow her to transfer the heat more efficiently to the eggs.

Rearing The Brood

Greedy Chicks

After two weeks the eggs hatch out and the blind chicks, covered in thin dark down, increasingly dominate the parents’ lives with their enormous appetites. Both adults and young robins feed on insects, spiders and worms. They tend not to eat seeds and berries as a general rule. About 15 days after hatching these young robins, now weighing more than their parents, leave the nest.

Two particularly attentive parents were reported by naturalist David Lack. They built their nest in a cart which had to go on a 200 mile round trip just after the young hatched. Undaunted, the adult birds accompanied their offspring, feeding them on the way.

When the young birds leave the nest they face two or three days of great danger since they cannot yet fly well. At this stage they have a soft speckled brown plumage with no trace of their parents’ red breast. By the beginning of June they start to lose their body feathers and to develop their red breasts- growing from the bottom upwards. The wings do not moult but continue to develop until July of the next year when they reach their full size.

A Young Robin

Juvenile robins have a spotty, speckled brown plumage, with no hint of a red breast which develops later in the summer. In its first year, the robin has a one in six chance of survival.

Juvenile robins have a spotty, speckled brown plumage, with no hint of a red breast which develops later in the summer. In its first year, the robin has a one in six chance of survival.

Second Brood

Once the young are fledged the adults build a new nest within the same territory and, unless they are prevented for any reason (disturbance by a cat, flooding of the nest in bad weather or thoughtless hedge cutting), will raise another brood in May. During the summer for a period of five weeks, the adult robins replace their old feathers with new ones. They stay in the same area, but make themselves less obvious and less active, concealed in shrubberies and thickets. During this moult the adult robins also fall silent- the only time of the year when the robin song is not a feature of the British countryside.

As the second brood of young birds acquires its red plumage and the adult birds their replacement plumage, the autumn song starts up. The rich and fruity spring song of the males gives way to the thinner, more piping song of young and old, cock and hen, as each claims its own territory; this is kept, with a few local alterations, through the winter until pairing takes place. In times of real food shortage, territoriality evaporates as all the birds concentrate on feeding.

Competing For Space

Almost all birds are territorial. It's generally during the breeding season that each bird defends a home area, and will not tolerate any bird of the same species apart from its mate within its territory. Robins (as can be seen in the video above) are no exception, and like other song birds they stake out quite large claims by their presence at strategic song-posts. Other birds restrict themselves to much smaller areas- gannets, for example, only defend the immediate nest area.

The robin singing in your favourite tree may seem full of the joys of spring but much more important to itself and other robins, it's saying: 'This is my land-keep off.' If the message is not understood it may still have to chase off the encroaching birds- a sight often seen when disputing birds dart at each other along a lawn or hedgerow without actually making contact. It's both these aggressive flutterings and song patterns that usually prevent actual fighting. But there are always exceptions.

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Population Control

Although some British robins migrate each autumn, most stay within a mile or two of their birthplace. So what happens to all of these robins? If each pair of adults raises two broods with five or six young in each, there are six times as many robins at the end of the breeding season as at the start. A single pair would become almost ten million pairs after just a decade- that’s about twice the total British population of robins at present. The sad fact is that the majority of them die. As many as a million robins may be killed by cats; while owls, hawks, cars, plate glass windows and harsh winters also take their toll. Sadly, but naturally, of the original pair and their offspring, on average only one adult and one youngster survive to breed the following year. Harsh winter weather often provides the greatest danger; so millions of people who feed birds leave out all sorts of titbit's- even mincemeat and grated cheese- to ensure that ‘their’ robins are the ones to survive. This feeding also encourages the robins to stay in gardens for longer than as is normal.

Beautiful, But Deadly Serious

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.


James Kenny (author) from Birmingham, England on November 23, 2013:

Hmmm...I wonder why the parents abandoned the nest. Maybe a cat or some other predator disturbed the nest at some point. Thanks Sally.

Sally Gulbrandsen from Norfolk on November 23, 2013:

JKenny Fascinating little Robins - so cute to look at and yet they can be so aggressive to one another.

I popped a clay pot onto our hedge one year and in no time I had three little eggs sitting in it - sadly the parents did not stay to rear the chicks. Thank you for sharing.

James Kenny (author) from Birmingham, England on June 12, 2013:

Hi Deb, it's quite strange to think of the American Robin as a robin, because to my eyes it looks like a blackbird with a red breast. Thanks for popping by.

James Kenny (author) from Birmingham, England on June 12, 2013:

Thank you very much Linda. I really appreciate it!

Deb Hirt from Stillwater, OK on June 12, 2013:

I enjoyed hearing the delightful commentary on your wonderful little robin, which is quite different from the American Robin.

Linda Crampton from British Columbia, Canada on June 12, 2013:

Thanks for the interesting and informative article, James. I've always loved robins and have happy memories of the ones that visited my garden when I lived in the UK. I enjoyed reading your hub and seeing the photos.

James Kenny (author) from Birmingham, England on June 12, 2013:

Hello Pearl! Thank you for popping by and commenting. Our robins aren't particularly fussy to be honest, they nest anywhere that's safe and secure, even if it means entering our homes. Three years ago we had some robins nesting behind some shelved boxes at work and it was wonderful to watch their progress, the only thing was that we had to clean up all the mess once the breeding season was over.

Connie Smith from Southern Tier New York State on June 12, 2013:

Hello James! I thoroughly enjoyed reading about your Robin Redbreast, as it at times closely parallels our familiar Robin Redbreast. Though they look completely different, their behaviors are much the same. I have a pair of robins nesting in a blue spruce, another pair nesting on a shelf near the front door and yet another on top of the electric meter! They have also used the back of our old satellite dish. It's amazing how they tend to use human objects for their homes.

Do your robins readily accept actual bird houses? Our require at least one side and the front be open, and don't use conventional bird boxes.

I learned a lot from this very interesting and beautiful article. Voted Up++++ and pinned

;) Pearl

James Kenny (author) from Birmingham, England on June 12, 2013:

Yes, but it's all about survival for them. Fortunately I've haven't witnessed it too much. Thank you very much Eddy.

Eiddwen from Wales on June 12, 2013:

A great read; we have one solitary Robin who visits our table often. I was quite sad when I learnt that these beautiful birds which we also connect to Christmas Cards will fight to the kill of they have to.

Well written and enjoyed.


James Kenny (author) from Birmingham, England on June 10, 2013:

Hi Pamela! Thanks for popping by. The strange thing about the American Robin is that they're not even robins, they are in actual fact thrushes- the reason why they're known as robins is because the first Europeans to see them were reminded of the true robin redbreasts back home. As for why we never see birds that have died from natural causes. I suspect that many simply decompose, while others fall into the clutches of the Sexton beetle (not sure if you have them over there!), basically what they do is bury the carcass of a mouse or bird, and then lay their eggs inside. Once the eggs hatch then the larvae have all the food they could possibly need. Gruesome but useful.

Pamela Dapples from Arizona. on June 10, 2013:

The robin at the top of your hub is so pretty! Our robins over here are not as pretty, but I still love 'em. I enjoyed your article. Sad, though, regarding how many die every year. I've wondered myself recently how come I never see any dead birds when there must be thousands that die every month in my area. I can understand that hawks and other birds of prey devour many -- and cats do too -- but the ones that just die naturally or from severe weather; I wonder why we don't see them. Maybe the ravens eat them?

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