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Rabbit Care Essentials

What many people do not realize is that rabbits actually make really excellent household pets! I am speaking from experience, as I currently have a pet rabbit living with me in my apartment. He is very much like a cat - uses a litterbox, very independent and curious, as well as affectionate. The people I speak to about him or who meet him are always surprised by how clean and friendly he is! Perhaps I just happen to have one of the best bunnies around, but the truth is that all house-rabbits can easily be trained and can provide you with the animal companionship that you seek. In this article I will discuss some of the basics of rabbit care and what it takes to live with your very own house-rabbit!

Preparing Your Home

The ideal situation for a house-rabbit would involve being able to roam freely in all or certain parts of your home. This requires some preparation on your part because just like most pets, rabbits are very curious creatures who can get into just about anything. There are things around your home that can be dangerous to your new four-footed friend.

Rabbits love to chew and seem to be unfortunately attracted to electrical cords. It is fairly obvious why this could be a hazard to both you and you rabbit. Only a few swift chomps will allow your bunny to cut right through most electrical cords, leaving them at risk of being shocked and you at risk for a potential fire in your home. There are several solutions to this problem. For me I found that it was very easy to simply restrict my rabbit's access to areas where there are a lot of electrical cords. Other people have found that using plastic tubing to cover the cords works well too. Whatever you choose to do, it is an important thing to think about prior to bringing your rabbit home.

House plants are potentially hazardous as well, depending on what kind they are. Some varieties of common house plants are in fact poisonous to rabbits, and given that rabbits are grazing animals it is likely that they will try to munch on them if they are easily accessible. This website has a very comprehensive list of plants (those you might find outdoors as well) that are toxic to rabbits. If you have any of these plants in your home, just make sure that they are out of your bunny's reach and you should be safe! If that is not an option, then it would be best to get rid of them entirely.

One last recommendation when bunny-proofing your home is to remind yourself again that rabbits chew. If you have any rugs or furniture that you simply cannot risk being chewed on, then do now allow your rabbit near them. Ideally, providing your rabbit with plenty of chew toys will satisfy this urge, but its always good to be in the mindset that damage to your things is a possibility. If you simply cannot tolerate this, then a rabbit may not be the right choice for you.

Rabbit cage built with Neat Idea Cubes.

Rabbit cage built with Neat Idea Cubes.

Preparing Their Home

Even though house-rabbits can generally be found roaming freely in houses and apartments, they still need to have a cage. Why? Well, as mentioned above, rabbits are very curious and can get into a lot of trouble when left alone. It is best for them to have a safe place to relax and spend time when no one else is home and at night when everyone is sleeping.

When I first started my search for the perfect rabbit cage I found that I was constantly being disappointed by what pet stores like PetCo and PetsMart had to offer. The cages were simply too small! So, following some advice from my bunnys foster mom, I built the cage myself using "Neat Idea Cubes". The materials were not expensive and can be bought at Target. Click here for a really great article on how to build one for yourself! The really great thing about these cages is that you can continually make them bigger or change the shape, depending on your living situation and the kind of space you have available. The only other really great rabbit cage I have discovered can be found on the Leith Petworks website. I hope to be able to afford one someday!

Your rabbit’s cage must be large enough to contain a litter box, food bowls, and a place for your them to rest/hide, while still providing enough space for normal bunny behaviors. Rabbits should be able to lie down and stretch out, hop around a little, and stand up on their hind legs inside their cage. When choosing or building your cage, you’ll want to consider how much out-of-cage time your rabbit will have during the day. If your bunny will not be getting a good amount of out-of-cage time, they should be provided with additional cage space so they can exercise. This space can include multiple levels, which will increase the rabbit’s floor space without taking up more room in your home. You will also want to choose a cage that is comfortable for your rabbit and easy to clean for you. Wire bottoms in cages can be painful for your rabbit’s feet and really should not be used unless the wire is covered with a solid surface. This can be easily remedied by purchasing carpeting, linoleum, or a plastic tray to fit the bottom of the cage.

As mentioned earlier, you will want to purchase a litter box for inside their cage. You will find that stores sell litter boxes meant for rabbits, but I found that these seemed way to small, so I use litter boxes that are meant for cats. They have nice, tall sides to hold in the CareFresh and hay and they are large enough for my rabbit to sit in comfortably. My bunny is a fairly large breed, so I guess it depends on the size of your rabbit, but it is something to consider before going out and doing your shopping. Also, you may want to purchase more than one litter box, as you might find your rabbit likes to use the bathroom in places other than inside the cage. I have two, one in the cage and one outside on the other side of the living room. Before I had both, he would leave poops in this one corner, so I put another litter box there and hes been perfect ever since!

When purchasing food and water bowls, make sure to get good heavy duty ceramic bowls. Bunnies can be very eager and enthusiastic when eating, causing the dish to easily move or flip over if not made of something sturdy.

My rabbit munching on his salad of fresh greens.

My rabbit munching on his salad of fresh greens.

Strictly Vegetarian Diet

Rabbits are grazers and herbivores by nature. Their diet should consist primarily of grasses. Our house rabbits will satisfy this need by being provided with grass hay 24/7. The most common type of grass hay you will find is Timothy hay and is a great kind to give to your rabbit. There are other varieties of grass hay as well, such as orchard grass, meadow hay, oat hay. A mixture of these hays would be ideal, but just providing Timothy hay is certainly sufficient. The only kind of hay that you want to avoid at all costs is Alfalfa hay. This kind of hay is much too high in calories and protein, which could lead to unnecessary weight gain in your bunny.

While your rabbit's diet should consist mostly of hay, you should also provide them with some variety of fresh greens every day. Leafy green veggies will provide your rabbit with important vitamins and nutrients. I have found it most convenient to cut, wash, and mix various types of leafy greens into a tupperware, giving me a large salad of mixed greens to last all week for my rabbit. Each day I just take a small handful and put it in his food bowl. Suggested vegetables include:

  • Parsley
  • Endive
  • Kale
  • Dark Leaf Lettuce
  • Carrot Tops (the green part)
  • Chicory
  • Arugula
  • Basil

There are other kinds of vegetables out there that you can try, but you will find that your rabbit might be a bit picky!

Contrary to popular belief, the pellet-style rabbit food should only be given as a small supplement to hay and fresh vegetables, if at all. If you decide to feed your rabbit some pellets on a daily basis, just make sure you are choosing the right kind. Again you want to avoid at all costs Alfalfa-based pellets. Just like Alfalfa hay, they are too high in calories and protein and can leave you with an overweight bunny. It is easy to find good quality Timothy-based pellets that will provide your rabbit with the proper amount of fiber and whole grains.

Now, moving on to fruit. You will realize quickly that your rabbit has a big sweet tooth. This is completely normal! Rabbits love to eat fruit and anything sweet. The great thing about this is that because your bunny is so food-motivated, it makes it easy to train them to do cute tricks. You want to be sure, however, that you are not over-feeding fruit as it is high in sugar and starch. That said, fruit should only be given as a treat and not as part of your rabbits main diet! Your rabbit will enjoy both fresh fruits and dried fruits. Some suggested fruits include:

  • Apple (not the seeds!)
  • Banana
  • Strawberry
  • Tomato (leaves are toxic)
  • Papaya (great for helping to digest hairballs)
  • Pineapple
  • Melon
  • Carrot (the root part, while not a fruit, should still be considered a treat!)

Bunny Behavior

The more time you spend observing and playing with your rabbit, the faster you will get to know their common behaviors and what they mean. Here are some (but not all) of the general rabbit behaviors to be aware of so that you can decipher what your rabbit is doing and what they are trying to tell you.

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  • Chewing -- Rabbits teeth grow continuously, therefore they need things to chew in order to keep their teeth filed down. They can also chew is they are bored or stressed.
  • Digging -- Burrowing and digging is part of your rabbits nature and is something they enjoy doing. Give your rabbit a box of hay or even just a big blanket that they can "dig" in. Hopefully they will choose to dig on things you provide them as opposed to your carpet or furniture.
  • Napping -- Rabbits are most active during the early morning and in the evening. During the middle of the day they tend to enjoy short naps with small amounts of activity in-between.
  • Anger/Annoyance -- Grunting and thumping are ways that your rabbit is telling you they are frightened, angry or annoyed. Make sure to give your bunny some space if you see these behaviors.
  • Chinning -- Sometimes your rabbit may rub their chin on your stuff. This is their way of getting their scent all over your things in order to claim them as his territory.
  • Nudging -- At times your rabbit may approach you and nudge you gently with their nose. This can either mean that they would like to be paid attention to or that you are in their way.
  • Binky -- When your rabbit is really happy and having fun they may run around your house and randomly jump up into the air, kicking their back legs and wiggling their body. This is very cute and fun to watch!
Oxbow Papaya Tablets

Oxbow Papaya Tablets

Grooming and General Health

Bunnies require grooming by their humans just like most other pets. You should have a few brushes handy and plan on giving your rabbit a good brushing once a week or so. They are generally pretty good about grooming themselves (like cats), but its nice to brush them so that they aren't injesting too much fur. This is important as rabbits do not have a gag reflex and therefore need to pass any and all hairballs. Consistent brushing is a good way to keep your bunny from taking in too much hair, which can be dangerous. There are other remedies you can use as well, such as papaya which contains a specific enzyme that helps to break down hairballs. I would recommend treating your rabbit with either dried papaya (no sugar added) or Oxbow Papaya Tablets.

The other tool you should have handy is a set of pet nail clippers. These can be easily purchased from places like PETCO and PetsMart. You will want to clip your bunny's nails about once a month depending on how quickly they grow. This is important because if they get too long they can do considerably more damage with them and they can also snag on things like your carpet or funiture and possibly get ripped out entirely. Since rabbits can spook easily and are fragile creatures, it is best to have two people helping with the nail clipping endeavor: one person to hold, one person to clip. The most important thing to remember is to avoid clipping them too short. If you do you will clip what is know as the quick which will be painful and cause your little bunny to bleed.

In addition to brushing and trimming nails, you always want to keep a close eye on your rabbit, examining them every now and then for changes in their health and behavior. You can look in their ears and eyes, feel around their body etc. to make sure that everything looks normal. And just like any animal, they can be subjected to sickness and diseases so it is best to research these in advance so you know what to look out for.

Lastly, it is important that your bunny see a Veterinarian on a regular basis! Call ahead to the clinic where you think you want to go to find out if they have a Vet who is rabbit-savvy. It is imperative that your rabbit see the vet on an annual basis for a general health check-up!


Bunnyboss on October 30, 2017:

Your absolutely right. I think rabbits are as god as dogs I have five rabbits that live in my back garden their very smart and affectionate .Tiger(one of my rabbits )is always licking me but is digging holes a lot

Fran on July 11, 2016:

I have a flamish giant... She like eat a lot.... She sleep to much.... She is the most of the time energetic in the morning when she wake up.... Is normal on her sleep to much?

Alicia on July 30, 2014:

Thanks for the great information! I'm an American living in Quito, Ecuador, and I saw a bunny in a small grocery store sitting on top of a counter. I started petting him and over comes this super drunk, but young guy who was buying beers. He was like (in Spanish) "do you like him? take him, I don't want him". I wasn't actually looking to get a bunny at all! I was just curious as to why there was a bunny on the counter, but once I saw this wacked out owner, I knew that I couldn't let the lil guy stay under his care. So he handed him to me and now we have a bunny! We've had him for about a week now and the vet says he is in good health. We have a fenced in garden which we let him play in for several hours a day. He never seems to get enough of food and grass! I think he is happy here, and he is adorable and definitely winning our hearts. My question to you is...there are not nearly as many options for food and hay here in Ecuador. They have hay but it's sold by farmers and we have no idea what kind it is! Do you think it's safe for him? Thanks :)

Barry Robinson on December 02, 2013:

Thank you everyone for all the advice. I have bought a book on bunnies and he has been to see a vet [he's a rescue rabbit so he saw one before he was given to us]. I've also read a lot of stuff online and feel a lot more comfortable about looking after him. He seams happy and is starting to warm to us :)

Swim gal on December 01, 2013:

That reminds me.... Do you mind listing things that threaten my rabbits life?

Swim gal on December 01, 2013:

Thank you sooooo much for this advise!!!! It makes me feel safer and better about taking care of a bunny. Plus, I have never owned a bunny before and I am very nervous and I want her to feel safe and happy in her new environment. This advise really helped!

Barry Robinson on November 21, 2013:

I adopted an 18 month old rabbit [Ghibli - previously known as Buddy] four weeks ago. I feed him a handful of green leaves, sprouts, and parsley, with an egg cup of pellets [not muesli] in the morning, and a smaller amount of veggies [and another egg cup of pellets] in the evening, with huge amounts of hay throughout the day. I don't use central heating, even in the winter. He's a dwarf lion rabbit, and used to "binky" a lot more than he does now, which bothers me. [Though was giving him more veggies at the time ]. He seams a little aloof, and although I've read everything I can, and he has become more affectionate, I still feel that he is retreating into his pen more and more. I love him very much. I fell in love with him the minute I saw him in Wythal Animal Sanctuary. He has a pen by the window with a small hutch and lit tray. During the day he has full run of the living room, but he doesn't really go out that much. I try to play as much as I can and interact with him every day, but he's not really responding to anything but stroking. Am I doing something wrong?

P.S I've never owned a rabbit before and I'm nervous because I want him to be happy because he's a rescue rabbit!

laura on January 05, 2013:

My bunny doesn't let my pick him up and i'm scared to because i don't want to get bit what should i do

purnimamoh1982 on June 13, 2012:

Even after writing such a wonderful hub, I wonder why you stopped writing. I am new to hubpages and I appreciate your style of writing a lot. I have written some experiences on rabbits. Please see

Leila on June 04, 2011:

Phew! I was shocked to read Sophie's comment! She's been ill-treating her rabbit. Fact is rabbits are grazers and she starved it every other day! People must acquaint themselves with the needs of animals before keeping them!

Alaura on April 12, 2011:

hmm.i have a lionhead bunny and i never knew all this info

EarthAnimal (author) from Malden, MA on February 10, 2011:


You are absolutely right to be concerned about leaving your baby outside in a hutch. I'm sorry I can't be of more comfort! You need to tell your husband that it is irresponsible to leave a domesticated rabbit outside like that. They are subject to extreme temperatures (both cold and hot) as well as constant fear from wild predators (like racoons or large birds). While these animals may not be able to get into your rabbit's hutch, they can prowl around outside and constantly terrorize your rabbit. This high level of stress is not good for your rabbits health and could even literally scare them to death.

I do not recommend under any circumstances keeping your pet rabbit outside in a hutch. Would you keep your pet dog or cat chained up in the backyard? Probably not. Rabbits are no different. They are part of your family and need to be treated as such.

Do your best to keep your bunny safe and warm out in the hutch until you can make other arrangements for him inside. You should be giving him fresh hay every day and maybe add a blanket or two to his living space. Make sure he has a place to hide and get away from potential predators who may lurk outside of his hutch.

Good luck and let me know if you have any more questions!

HedwigsMamma on November 28, 2010:

My bunny's almost 10 months old now... ever since the night we bought him he's always been attached 2 me.. he's my baby & I enjoy the fact he lays on my lap & snuggles so much.. my husband, however built him a hutch & now he's out side... I almost went crazy this summer from CONSTANTLY stressing about him & I bring him back in every day..I'm so worried that he's gonna get cold since winters getting so close. I've put Fresh hay in his nest box every 2 days & he sleeps in it, I've made sure he's Not got any cold wind blowing on him from the back & sides.. but I can't sleep @ night & I'm constantly going outside 2 check on him,,,how can I really be sure that he's OK... cuz when he sees me... he just goes 2 the door,cuz he knows I'll let him out & hold him... PLZ Help

jeesrod on November 19, 2010:

thanks for all the ideas and advices you have < they really helped me a lot since this is the first time a rabbit as a pet. :)

EarthAnimal (author) from Malden, MA on September 21, 2010:


You should NEVER EVER pick your rabbit up by it's ears. That is an improper way to handle your bunny and it is painful for them. Please do not continue to pick them up that way. You need to place a hand just behind your bunny's fore arms and support their bum with your other hand, and make sure to hold them tightly and close to your body. Rabbits do not tend to enjoy being handled, so they usually squirm quite a bit; if your rabbit falls out of your arms because you weren't holding them tight enough they could land badly and break their back. Please consult this Hub for more details:

Also, you MUST feed your rabbit EVERY day. Rabbits are grazing animals and eat a lot. Make sure to have timothy hay available for your rabbit 24/7 and feed him a nice bowl of greens twice a day. Please please please follow these guidelines. It also sounds like you may want to purchase and read a book on how to care for your rabbit.

Have you taken your bunny to the vet yet? I highly recommend you take them to an exotic animal vet immediately, if they are showing signs of being sick. It is also a good idea to get your rabbit checked out anyway if you just recently adopted them.

Rabbits make excellent pets, but they require special care and a lot of work. Please make sure you educate yourself on your bunnies needs as soon as possible!!

sophie on September 21, 2010:

My bunny scerms and bites when I pick it up by the ears what should I do and it eats a lot so i have been only feeding it every other day and it loks sick

Jenny Rabbit on March 26, 2010:

was in the store the other day in the pet section and saw that rough sandpaper like paper for birds. i was wondering if i put some on the ramp in my buns cage if that would wear down their nails naturally? just wondering if anyone has tried it or if anyone has any good reasons not to try it. I think it sounds reasonable to me....should work....right well guess well see cuz i think im gonna get some and try it.

Nishacee97 from Wales. on December 31, 2009:

Thanks This Has Helped. Do You Know Any Good Games That I Can Play With My Bunny. (somethng different please) xx

EarthAnimal (author) from Malden, MA on December 07, 2009:

have you tried You can search by breed and find rabbits in your area that need homes!!

Raggits on August 10, 2009:

Thanks for the info. I would like to find them, but they aren't very prevalent in MO.

EarthAnimal (author) from Malden, MA on July 30, 2009:

He was actually labeled as a Florida White by the place I adopted him. He is a bit smaller than a typical New Zealand, but hes also a bit bigger than the average Florida White.... so, maybe hes a mix between the two!

Raggits on July 30, 2009:

New Zealand rabbit?

Raggits on July 30, 2009:

Great hub! Great cages if you want them inside. Keep up the great work!

Goldie on July 01, 2009:

This is very helpful for me!!! thank you so much for putting this up! :)

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