Table of Contents for this Hub Series on Snake Venom
- What snakes are venomous/poisonous?
- Snake Fangs 101
- Front- versus Rear-fanged Snakes
- Front- and Rear-fanged Snake Envenomation Systems
- Snake Venom Composition and Variability
- The Utility of Snake Venom Research
- The Expert's Guide to Snakebite
Front-fanged Snake Dentition
Rear-fanged Snake Dentition
What does front- or rear-fanged mean?
Not surprisingly, it refers to exactly what you think it would mean: the placement of the pair of fangs in the outer row of teeth on the upper jaw of the snake's mouth. Generally speaking, front-fanged snakes have fangs at the front of the mouth, whereas rear-fanged snakes have fangs near the rear or back of the mouth. If it was just that easy and the differences stopped there, however, you wouldn't be seeing two hubs dedicated to this topic.
They are actually classified in different taxonomic families within the superfamily Colubroidea (advanced snakes). Front-fanged snakes belong to the families Atractaspididae (although some species possess fangs towards the rear of the mouth, and some other species are nonvenomous), Elapidae, and Viperidae, while rear-fanged snakes are members of family Colubridae (many nonvenomous species also reside within this family). Examples of snakes from each family are as follows: Burrowing Asps and the side-stabbing Stiletto Snakes (Atractaspididae); Cobras, Coral Snakes, and Sea Snakes (Elapidae); Rattlesnakes and Vipers (Viperidae); Boomslangs, Garter Snakes, Hognose Snakes, and many other "common/typical" snakes (Colubridae).
Dentition of Front- and Rear-fanged Snakes
Whereas rear-fanged snakes tend to possess a similar tooth number and layout (placement) to nonvenomous snakes, front-fanged snakes have significantly fewer teeth in a condensed layout. Why would the "normal" teeth (non-fangs) be different between front- and rear-fanged snakes? This partially comes down to the venom transport efficiency problem we mentioned before, which we will elaborate upon a bit more in the next hub. Since rear-fanged snakes are significantly less efficient at transferring venom, they must bite and hold onto their prey (and, in some cases, actually "chew") in order to effectively envenomate them. Therefore, they still need the rest of their "normal" teeth for grasping and holding struggling prey. Front-fanged snakes, on the other hand, possess a very efficient venom-transport system that permits them to bite prey and release them shortly thereafter (allowing the prey to succumb to the venom before attempting to ingest them). Since they don't often deal with struggling prey being held in their mouths, they don't need many teeth to grasp with (although they still need to be able to effectively hold prey for ingestion since they have no limbs). Generally speaking (see diagram below), front-fanged snakes possess less than half the number of teeth on their lower jaw (keeping in mind that no snake has any inner row teeth on the lower jaw) and completely lack any outer row teeth on their upper jaw (with the exception of the pair of front-fangs). Virtually all snakes possess a gap in the center of their tooth rows in order to accommodate the forked tongue and trachea, which protrudes to permit uninterrupted breathing during ingestion.
We will continue discussing this front- and rear-fanged snake dichotomy in the next hub that compares their envenomation systems, which you may explore after testing your basic knowledge of front- and rear-fanged snake dentition. You can also check out the video below, which shows a rear-fanged snake grabbing and holding onto its prey in order to effectively envenomate it. If you would like to learn more about the envenomation symptoms elicited by front-fanged snakes, please see the Amazon links below for some useful book resources. If you have further questions about snakes that are not addressed by this article on front- versus rear-fanged snakes (or any other articles in this Snake Venom hub series), please see my hub on FAQs About Snakes.
Rear- versus Front-fanged Snake Dentition
Can you tell the difference between front- and rear-fanged snakes?
For each question, choose the best answer. The answer key is below.
- Front- and rear-fanged snakes differ solely on fang placement.
- Whereas front-fangs are present on the upper jaw, rear-fangs exist on the lower jaw.
- Front- and rear-fanged snakes are commonly found within the same taxonomic family.
- Rattlesnakes, Cobras, and some Burrowing Asps are front-fanged.
- Which snakes generally possess more "normal" teeth?
- Front-fanged snakes generally hold onto prey in order to be able to efficiently envenomate them.
Rear-fanged Snakes are Much Less Efficient at Injecting Venom and Often Hold onto Prey
This hub is intended to educate people ranging from snake experts to laymen about the particulars of distinguishing front-fanged snakes from rear-fanged snakes. This information contains generalizations and by no means encompasses all exceptions to the most common "rules" presented here. This information comes from my personal experience/knowledge as well as various primary (journal articles) and secondary (books) literature sources (and can be made available upon request). All pictures and videos, unless specifically noted otherwise, are my property and may not be used in any form, to any degree, without my express permission (please send email inquiries to email@example.com).
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© 2012 Christopher Rex