Elephants are in big size animal and they are fully vegetarian
There are two different species of African and Asian elephants in the world. The ears and trunk are two very important features of an elephant. They range in color of very light, dark, to gray. Elephants are called patchiderms, meaning they are thick-skinned animals. Their skin is very tight and it is about 1 inch thick. Their skin is very thick but extremely sensitive. So their skin is protected from insect bites and from the scorching sun. They drown in water to cool their large bodies at extreme temperatures. Their legs are like large pillars and large padded legs. Elephants can grow about 18 cm a year. Elephant calves are able to stand within 20 minutes of birth and walk within 1 hour. The ears of African elephants are twice as large as those of Asian elephants, and their ears are characterized by the shape of a map of Africa. The ears also control the body temperature of the elephant. On hot days they flutter the blood circulating through the numerous blood vessels in the ear and cool it before returning to the body, which calms the animal. African elephants have two 'fingers' at the tip, while Asian elephants have one. The trunk of an elephant has more than 40,000 muscles. Elephants also rely on trunks for their sense of smell. By throwing their trunks in the air, they can move in one direction to find out where the food is, as well as the location and enemies of other elephants. The elephants average 3 meters in height and weigh 6 tons.
The average lifespan of an elephant is 50 to 70 years, depending on the condition of the tusks.
The elephant is a herbivorous animal. They only eat plants. They eat all kinds of plants like grass, leaves, bark, fruit and shrubs. They usually spend about 16 hours a day looking for plants to eat and are able to eat a variety of foods. Elephants need to eat about 100 to 200 kilograms of food per day as they digest only 40% of the food they eat. They also need to drink 100 to 200 liters of water per day.
African elephants are found in Africa and live in habitats such as savannas and open forests. Asian elephants are found in Southeast Asia, Nepal and India.
Females and males do not live in the same herd, so they mate together. Women prefer to partner with older and more powerful men because it gives their offspring a better chance of survival. The gestation period in elephants is 22 months, after which the female gives birth to a calf. It can grow up to 1 meter in length and weigh 50 to 113 kilograms. When calves are born, hair with long tails, large ears, and a short trunk is very hairy. They drink their mother's milk from their mouths. Elephant calves do not seem to have many survival skills dependent on their mother. The other females in the group, which do not have offspring of their own, help raise calves and teach them what they need to know.
Elephants live together as in a herd, herds are made up of females that are usually related and their descendants call the head of the herd the matriarch and this is the largest and most experienced female. Once the group gets too big some of the older girls break out of a different group and form a small group of their own but they are always aware of who their relatives are and who are not in the local herd. The life of an adult male is very different from that of a female. When a young male elephant grows up, he spends a few hours, a few days on the edge of the herd.
He then begins to live life until he is 14 years old. On his own. Although males do not live in herds, they spend a lot of time together and to gain dominance because only the most dominant males breed with females. These are usually adult males and there's age about 40 to 50 years. Elephants communicate with many sounds, some of which humans cannot even hear. They use sounds so that they can communicate with each other over long distances. The grunting in the elephant's belly seems to be a satisfying sound, so they signal to the other elephants that everything is fine. Elephants seem to have the same emotions as humans. They are very social and often touch each other. They also express concern for sick or injured family members and seem to be saddened when someone in their family dies.
Nearly 90% of African elephants have become extinct in the last century - mainly due to the ivory trade, and Asian elephants have become equally endangered, at least 50% in the last three generations. This decline in elephants has endangered the survival of a large, mighty animal, and is a matter of concern.