India's Freshwater Fish
The economic importance of Indian aquatic ecosystems can be seen from their contribution to fishery production. Fishing in India constitutes 0.87% of India's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 4.15% of its agricultural GDP, and 5.63% of the world's fish production. Present production of fish and shellfish from wild fisheries and aquaculture combined is estimated to be around 8.76 million tonnes: 3.37 million tonnes from marine environments and 5.30 million tonnes from inland water resources.
Aquatic ecosystems--interdependent communities of living things in water--can be divided into marine and freshwater ecosystems. Freshwater ecosystems are home to 41% of the world's fish species. Freshwater ecosystems may be further subdivided into three types. Slow-moving water environments such as ponds, lakes, and pools are known as "lentic" ecosystems. Streams and rivers where water moves rapidly are called "lotic" ecosystems, and freshwater ecosystems with anaerobic or partly anaerobic conditions are called "wetlands."
Photos below of Indian freshwater species are accompanied by a brief description of their habitat (type of water body) and the depth of water they prefer.
This information is from Vandana Srivastava, 2006, Systematic Survey of Different Kinds of Fishes, a Ph.D. thesis submitted to VBU. The author has consented to the publication of this material in this Hub. All these photographs are copyrighted material and may not be used on any website without prior permission.
Groups of Freshwater Species
Indian freshwater fish species are grouped below into:
A. Indigenous major carps
B. Exotic carps
C. Common-type carps
D. Hill stream fishes
E. Air-breathing fishes
F. Ornamental fishes
See the photo gallery after each section.
A. Indigenous Major Carps
"Major" carps are larger and faster-growing than the "minor" carps.
1. Catla catla. Found on the surface of lakes, ponds, tanks, reservoirs, and other bodies of water.
2. Lebeo rohita. Found in the column (that is, at various depths) in lakes, ponds, tanks, reservoirs, and other bodies of water.
3. Cirrhinus mrigala (not shown). Found at the bottom of lakes, ponds, tanks, and reservoirs.
4. Lebeo bata (not shown). Found at the bottom of bodies of water.
5. Labeo calbasu. Found at the bottom of bodies of water.
Indigenous Major Carps
B. Exotic Carps
1. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. Found on the surface.
2. Cyprinus carpio var. specularis (not shown). Found at the bottom of bodies of water.
3. Cyprinus carpio var. communis. Found at the bottom of bodies of water.
4. Ctenopharyngodon idella (not shown). Found in the column.
5. Tilapia mossambicus (not shown). Found at the bottom of bodies of water.
C. Common Minor Carps
1. Oxygaster bacaila. Found at the surface.
2. Amblypharyngodon mola. Found at the bottom.
3. Esomus danricus
4. Cirrhina reba. Found at the bottom.
5. Rhinomugil corsula
6. Eutropiichthys vacha
7. Puntius ticto. Found at the surface.
8. Puntius stigma. Found in the column.
9. Puntius conchonius. Found in the column.
10. Ambassis nama. Found at the surface of ponds, lakes, rivers, and reservoirs.
11. Ambassis ranga. Found at the surface.
12. Glossogobius giuris. Found at the surface.
13. Osteobramo cotio. Found at the surface.
14. Barilius bola. Found at the surface in ponds.
15. Mastacembelus aculeatus (not shown). Found in muddy places.
16. Mastacembelus pancalus. Found in muddy places
17. Mystus bleekeri. Found in muddy places.
18. Mystus cavasius. Found in muddy places.
19. Mystus vittatus. Found in muddy places.
Common Minor Carps
D. Rare Minor Carps
1. Guludia chapra. Found at the surface in ponds.
2. Xenentodon cancila
3. Ailia coila
Rare Minor Carps
E. Air-Breathing Fishes
1. Clarias batrachus. Found in muddy places and at the bottom of bodies of wateer
2. Heteropneustes fossilis. Found in muddy places and at the bottom of bodies of water.
3. Channa punctatus. Found in muddy places during the rainy season, and at the bottom of bodies of water.
4. Channa gachua. Found in muddy places during the rainy season, and at the bottom of bodies of water.
5. Channa striatus. Found in muddy places during the rainy season, and at the bottom of bodies of water,
6. Channa marulius. Found in muddy places (uncommon), and at the bottom of ponds, lakes, and reservoirs.
7. Wallago attu. Found in the column in ponds, lakes, and reservoirs.
8. Ompok bimaculatus Found in the column in bodies of water.
9. Notopterus notopterus
10. Notopterus chitala
11. Anabas testudineus. Found in the column.
12. Mystus seenghala. Found at the bottom.
F. Hill Stream Fishes
1. Garra gotyla. Found in the Chano River near Churchu block, and the Konar River.
2. Garra kempi. Hill streams, and ditches near the foothills.
3. Lepidocephalichthys guntea. Most commonly occurring hill stream fish.
4. Nemacheilus botia. Found in ditches near the foothills.
Hill Stream Fishes
G. Ornamental Species
1. Trichogaster lalius (not shown). Found at the surface in all fresh water bodies.
2. Danio rerio. Usually found during the rainy season in paddy fields and ditches.
3. Trichogaster fasciatus. Found at the surface in all fresh water bodies.
4. Mastacembelus armatus. Found in muddy places.
© 2008 Crusader
vicky on December 13, 2016:
Crusader (author) on October 22, 2013:
thanks for encouraging & beautiful comments.
aysha on October 21, 2013:
chirag kalani on October 07, 2013:
this page is so fishy
hasini on June 26, 2013:
this pics are very edutainment to me!
s.k on February 13, 2013:
good picture,add related tamil,and their nutrient content,importance of fish in health,this is more comfertable for me, but other not understood
shubha on October 01, 2012:
it helps me on my project . thanks but we need more info about this
SRRAO on July 24, 2012:
Would u please tell me
a) Halibat fish -its equivalent in India,
b) Salamon fish--its equivalent in India
sm hussaini ijeri on April 25, 2012:
still there is n# of fish in india rivers ,lake and DAMS.
to research required many facility to find it
nitish badyal on November 11, 2011:
Crusader (author) on November 08, 2011:
thanks all for sparing time and making lovely comments.
Aj on November 07, 2011:
It gve me hlp on mah project.
Jk on June 06, 2011:
Thank you for taking the time
Archna daniel on March 04, 2011:
Nice collection want to pcitures also
Justin on September 29, 2010:
Can you feed gold fish rice???
Aditi on February 19, 2010:
Good collection!Would be better if some general information could be given by some zoology friend
Mig on January 21, 2010:
Good Listing, perhaps the pics could be made to appear alongside.